A Ladder of Citizen Participation

      ARNSTEIN Sherry R. (1969), ʺA Ladder of Citizen Participationʺ, Journal of American Institute of Planners, n°35/4, pp.216-224.     Abstract :   This article is about power structures in society and how they interact. Specifically it is a guide to seeing who has power when important decisions are being made. It is quite old, but never-the-less of great value to anyone interested in issues of citizen participation. The concepts discussed in this article about 1960's America apply to any hierarchical society but are still mostly unknown, unacknowledged or ignored by many people around the world. Most distressing is that even people who have the job of representing citizens views seem largely unaware, or even dismissive of these principles. Many planners, architects, politicians, bosses, project leaders and power-holder still dress all variety of manipulations up as 'participation in the process', 'citizen consultation' and other shades of technobable.       Plan de l'article :     1. Citizen participation is citizen power >> 1.1. Empty Refusal Versus Benefit 2. Types of participation and "nonparticipation" >> 2.1. Limitations of the Typology 3. Characteristics and illustrations >> 3.1. Manipulation >> 3.2. Therapy >> 3.3. Informing >> 3.4. Consultation >> 3.5. Placation >> 3.6. Partnership >> 3.7. Delegated Power >> 3.8. Citizen Control