Papers for the Study Day. Summaries/3

Third Session --- 15:00-16:30

4 parallel workshops

Workshop 1-3 : Effects for the individual of the public participation: the professionalization paths of the actors

Discussants : Marie-Hélène Bacqué (LAVUE, Univ. Paris X) & Magali Nonjon (CERAPS, Univ. d'Avignon)

Mario Avila, Gilles Massardier, Éric Sabourin

The objectives of this paper is to understand the effects of participation on the participants themselves on one hand Territories, projects networks and on policy on the other hand, through the example of the participation of family farmers in the case study of rural territorial and sustainable development in Brazil, especially in the territory Aguas Emendadas. In this way, the paper is articulating sociology of participation, sociology of social and political paths
The objectives of this paper is to understand the effects of participation on the participants themselves on one hand and on policy on the other hand, through the example of the participation of family farmers in the case study of rural territorial and sustainable development in Brazil, especially in the territory Aguas Emendadas. In this way, the paper is articulating sociology of participation, sociology of social and political paths and of 'repertoires of collective action', and policy making analysis. In first part, the paper describes the specificities of territorial, participatory and sustainable rural development policy and its recent developments in Brazil. In a second step, it describes the social and political trajectories and possibilities of farmers that are including in participation process as well as their 'repertoires of collective action', allowing, in a second step, to build three analytic categories of participants and participations describing a hierarchical structure and a "hard core" of participation process. In a third step, the paper outlines the provisions of this "hard core" to develop an institutional activism whose effectiveness depends on formatting technically and financially the projects of public policy negotiated with the agricultural technology system (technical support agency for agriculture and administrations). These collusion is finally building an "advocacy coalition" which, in and beyond the participatory mechanism itself, defines governance and content of territorial, rural and participatory planning policy.

François P. Robert

Université du Québec à Montréal, Département de communication sociale et publique
Presentation of Citizens' deliberative process: The Rendez-vous stratégiques of Institut du Nouveau Monde (Québec, Canada)

Since its inception, the goal of the Institut du Nouveau Monde (INM) has been to find innovative solutions by leveraging the capacity of ordinary citizens to formulate solutions to issues that transcend Québec's society. This objective was notably achieved by the implementation of a model that is unique to INM: the Rendez-vous stratégiques. This type of model has already brought about the participation of thousands of citizens - more than 4,000 participated in the Rendez-vous des générations). This communication presents how the INM builds its events (inform, debate and propose) and highlights our research strategy for mapping the deliberation by analyzing social networks and ideas (sociosemantic). By using a "laboratory" methodology based on INM's model, this research aims to validate the hypothesis that opinion leaders' discourse is largely determined by those whose discourse they seek to influence, thus reversing a more traditional perspective which states that only opinion leaders influence the debate.

Vincent Simoulin, Laurie Béhar

Among the Science and Technology Studies various studies have dealt with the science-policy interfaces (Hoppe, 2005 ; Cash, 2003 ; Jasanoff, 1990). The main Streams (Callon, 1986 ; Barthe, 2006 ; Lascoumes, 2001 ; Whynne, 1996) have argued in favor of the laymen's inclusion in processes that used to be overpowered by experts. Still, sociologists have often showed that those experts were rather reluctant to include Laymen and that the formal devices devoted to organize the laymen's participation and consulting of these formers were mainly bypassed and eventually turned ineffective. In this paper, we aims to demonstrate that this is precisely the weariness brought by the regular noticing of these bypasses which partially explains a progressive involvement. The Laymen' staging devised to allow them an utterance of their (reluctant) posture ultimately leads to an opposite effect that the expected one. The key point is not that Laymen appear unable to deliver some positive contributions, but rather that the experts' reluctance triggers a learning dynamic, real and mutual, but which is in an obstruction and opposition way.

Workshop 2-3 : Effects on the collective mobilizations: the building of territories

Discussants : Michel Gariépy (Institut d'urbanisme, Univ. de Montréal) & Tommaso Vitale (CEE-Sciences Po)

Samuel Challéat

ThéMA, Université de Bourgogne
Discussing the territories of light

The call "Save the night!" sums up the whole issue of an emerging perception of artificial light as an object of damages. Launched in 1995 by actors from the astronomical community essentially, amateur and professional seeking to alert citizens and policymakers on a new pollution, this appeal is now taken up by ecologists and doctors as a new field of scientific knowledge on effects and impacts of artificial light on the environment and health. However, the developed knowledge - whether vernacular or scientific, "profane" or "expert" - gives rise for several years of intense conflicts between these new actors and other, more institutional and historically entrenched in the national and international landscape lighting. Here we show how, cognitively, was built the problem of light pollution, and how the dissonance between the referents of scales - cultural, territorial - of the actors continue to underpin a conflict deriving from contradictory uses of the night. But patterns of participation are emerging, and are not without effect, both in the factory of the decision in lighting as on the actors themselves. Change in the way of saying, in the evolution of knowledge, of skills, effects on decisions making, but also - importantly - cultural evolution, which highlights the positivity of the night.

Guillaume Faburel, Sophie Tartière

Lab'Urba, Institut d'Urbanisme de Paris / Bureau d'études Aménités, Montreuil
Evolution of perceptions on territories in planning conflicts around environmental issues: how useful are dialogue settings?

Fabrizio Maccaglia

Going against the current trend that sees the growth of participative preventive action to defuse conflicts that may occur during a decision planning, the Sicilian authorities involved in the construction of an incinerator in Palermo in 2002 opt for a procedure that excludes any form of dialogue and participation. This paper examines the methods to contest this project, particularly the initiatives taken by the opponents to open a public debate and influence decision making. It also examines the effects of mobilization on the conduct of the project itself and more broadly on the conduct the planning policy.

Élise Roche

The quality of participative democracy is regularly questioned. Its legitimacy, efficiency, honesty itself are often put in doubt by various actors as diverse as scientist, users, or residents together with decision-makers (technicians and elected representative) which are respectively included in, and initiators of these policies.
Despite these well-known failures, participative democracy is still managed, and continues to remodel public spaces. Thereby, arises the issue pointing out the consequences of these "failures" of participative democracy applied to urban projects. Referring to the point of views expressed by the actors of the process, we will assume that these "failures" of participative democracy contribute however to remodel public spaces.
To that end, we will follow a geographic analysis in order to indentify the terms of this spatial transformation, including the difference between the transformations initially "expected" by actors before-mentioned, and the outcome of the "failed" process. Through this spatial and qualitative approach, we will compare two urban projects in Italy and France.

Workshop 3-3 : Effects on public action: the conditions for a long-term  influence

Discussants : Luigi Bobbio (Università di Torino) & Francis Chateauraynaud (GSPR, EHESS)

Florian Charvolin

Air pollution is, amongst environmental phenomena, the one whose reality is a matter of personal perception. However, it is a deceptive approximation to deduce from this perceptual dimension that it is due to its subjective character. Indeed this would amount to postulating that somehow exists elsewhere an objective dimension against which is measured the gap with personal perception, hence demonstrating its subjective feature.  But a quick look at the history of air pollution measures in XXth century France, shows the entanglement of the subjective and the objective. This communication is based on an ongoing research named HICQUAR and funded by the program Concertation, Décision Environnement, and is aimed at describing the progressive dissociation of popular and scientific protocols of measurement of air pollution, until their recent hybridation in the form of networks of "bucket brigades" for the mapping of odors in certain French towns.

Lila Combe

This presentation questions the effects of the debate about the stakes of urban planning, relative to the urban growth of the Mount-Royal, huge hill located in downtown Montréal, Québec. Our approach consists in studying the global participative process which expends from the nineties to the two thousands about the planification of this territory. It consists in analysing transfers and changes which appear between the different scenes, concerning the actors who take part in the debate and the stakes they raise. This global analysis allows to note that one of the main effect of the participative process is the enhancement of the stake of protection. Owing to the debates, this principle is insert in the plan and its effective implementation is distinguished as a central stake by Montreal public debate Office. We can explain this by the fact that this stake is repeated and rephrased during the succesive debates, in particular by some influent associations, and by the fact that the desappointed expectations about Mount-Royal preservation, due to the planning process during the nineties, contribute to put the question of protection and its implementation at the height of the debate in the two thousands.

Paula Cossart, Julien Talpin

CeRIES, Université Lille III / CERAPS, Université Lille II
Quand la participation du public transforme la ville. Délibération et rapport de force à l'Alma-Gare dans les années 1970

Research works interested in the analyzis of the effects of public participation on public action and decisions, generally suffer from a triple deficiency. They can, at first, be focused only on the specific effects of the devices, which isolates the analysis of different decision-making scenes in which they are necessarily inserted. They may also - and both are related in part - understand only short-range effects, while an historical perspective should allow to better understand the transformations of public action, even in a local territory. Finally, contemporary studies on participatory democracy have an obvious problem: as most contemporary experiences are only consultative, noticeable effects are often microscopic. By proposing a socio-historical study of an experience that took place in the neighbourhood of Alma-Gare in Roubaix in the 1970s, we aim to overcome some of these difficulties. World-wide known experience of participation (which has as yet been the object of only very little scientific work), it is in many ways exceptional, especially because in this case, the mobilization of the inhabitants has allowed a deep transformation of the public action in the short, medium and long term.

Héloïse Nez

LAVUE, ENSA Paris-Val de Seine
The impacts of citizen participation in the making of the city: the permanent committee of dialogue in Paris Rive gauche

In participatory democracy processes, the impact of citizens is often limited to the neighborhood level, without influencing the major urban transformations. However in Paris Rive Gauche, the associations came to have a significant impact on a large urban project. In reflecting on this exception, this paper shows that associations can impose their knowledge in the negotiations, despite the questions of scale and the economic dimension of the projects, from the moment they arrive to capture effects of political opportunities, to develop a capacity of counter countervailing expertise and to mobilize it in a double dynamic of cooperation and countervailing power. This articulation between logics of knowledge and power is probably the condition that citizens can he heard on great urban issues. To understand the impact of the associative participation on a great urban project, it is thus necessary to take into account the context and to replace the effects of the participatory process among a wider set of collective actions.

Workshop 4-3 : Context and evaluation of public participation: methodology and criteria for assessing the effects

Discussants : Giovanni Allegretti (Centro de Estudos Sociais, Universidade de Coimbra) & Loïc Blondiaux (CESSP, Université Paris I)

Charlotte Da Cunha, Steve Plante, Liette Vasseur

Coastal ecosystems are fragile and subject to impacts that are caused either directly by various human activities, or indirectly due to changes and damage on those areas that can be linked to climate change. We notice a growing number of projects in integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) in different countries. The Community-University Research Alliances on Coastal Communities Challenges in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence facing climate change (CCC-CURA) has as main objective to strengthen the resilience of communities living in coastal and insular areas of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, by the implementation of participatory action research (PAR) of co-construction and co-production of adaptive processes and modes of governance in these coastal zones and of strategies for adapting to climate and environmental change. The aim of this communication is to present the structure of an operational model taking shape of a grid of indicators to follow the resilience of populations for an over time assessment of PAR processes in terms of coastal communities adaptation to the effects of climate change, especially the Outcome Mapping.

Bruno Daniel Filho, Florence Poznanski

Participatory budgets are among the participatory decision-making processes the most known in the world. Offering a free and formally unrestricted participation, they handle a significant quantity of participants and topics.
Their implantation in Brazil is noteworthy. After the dictatorship, the new mass parties promoted their expansion. They were considered as vectors of social justice and control of the government organs against clientelism and corruption.
However, few works focus on assessing the values commonly attributed to them. This paper seeks precisely to analyze empirically their role as tools of planning and democratic governance. Based on the participatory experience of the city of Santo André (greater São Paulo), is it to identify the contribution of the device on the quality and readability of the policy and on improving the internal functioning of the executive and the relationship between civil society and the various authorities. This in order to measure how those theoretical effects are appearing in practice.
Is the decision-making power of citizens really binding ? How far a participatory budget can alone bear on the organization of a community ? What are the prerequisites to get this goal ?

Nicolas Desquinabo

G-Eau -CEMAGREF / Telecom Paris-Tech

The question of the influence on decisions is frequently addressed in the literature on participation. However, the study protocols are rarely specified and the issue of adapting the methodologies to the diversity of political decision making is not addressed. Given this diversity, the methodologies used should combine a minimum "textual" protocol with more "optional" tools, according to the types of processes. A minimal textual protocol can evaluate the degree of short-term "non-influence" and "possible influence" of the participants' interventions. To assess whether a possible effect is specific to the participatory process, a more modular protocol must be added. This may consist of various types of studies of interventions on the same "decisions" in other arenas (commissions, working groups, etc.) or in other documents (national schemes, reference studies, etc.). To support our discussion, we present the methodologies used to study the influences on the decisions in two very contrasting processes: the revision of the charter of the Natural Regional Park of Camargue and the development of the Water Management Plan of the Saint-Brieuc bay.

Hélène Rey Valette, Syndhia Mathé

LAMETA, Université Montpellier I
What are criteria and methods for assessing forms of participatory governance?

Following the decentralization and contracting processes, public policies are characterized by a very significant development of the use of participatory approaches. The interest for greater efficiency of public policies and the strengthening of democracy explain this development. The extension of these new practices raises the question of evaluation. It proposes to go beyond the logic of New Public Management and to go through a managerial approach to public policy in order to identify and evaluate the supposed added-value of participatory devices and thus enhance their legitimacy. The aim of this paper is to propose an adapted methodological framework for the evaluation of participatory devices that incorporates both measurement issues of their their effects and the benefits of participatory evaluation process. Firstly, the authors will conduct a review of approaches based on evaluation of participatory governance forms. Secondly, a methodological evaluation grid and recommendations will be proposed to discuss the development of a referential of types of participation effects.