Papers for the Study Day. Summaries/2

Second Session --- 12:00-14:00

4 parallel workshops

Workshop 1-2 : Effects for the individual of the public participation: the learning effects

Discussants : Estelle Ferrarese (LCSE, Université de Strasbourg) & Jean-Michel Fourniau (DEST-IFSTTAR)

Henri Monceau

Ministère de l'Économie et des nouvelles technologies de Wallonie
Deliberative democracy and learning: an education around conflict ?
Confronting deliberative experiment with research in the cognitive and education fields allows us to confirm that, under certain conditions, deliberative experiences include a learning dimension as well as it provides hypothesis on the learning process itself. It indeed appears that interactions generated by deliberation lead to both dynamics of confrontation and of cooperation, which have positive impact on cognitive changes.
Social psychology and  cooperative education shed light on how these two dynamics - which may first appear paradoxical - work and how they can complement each other. It is then easier to understand how deliberative polls measure changes in preferences, which are in reality of socio-cognitive conflicts - conflicts playing a driving role in how opinions are built up and developed. This learning dynamic, especially the quality of it and its long term impact, are subject to two conditions: the deliberative approach must seek an educational dimension, or at least must explicitly  aim at the possibility of a sincere change in opinion; the deliberation must be organised in such a way that favorable conditions are created for cooperation and cognitive conflict appearance.

Céline Parotte, Grégory Piet, Nicolas Rossignol

The mechanisms of participatory and deliberative democracy have been increasingly debated in representative democracy, more specifically we seek to measure (1) the importance given to 'ordinary citizens' in decision-making processes and (2) their ability as "experts" to appropriate the processes.
To that purpose, we compare two researches on sitting conflicts: firstly, sitting projects of windmills in Walloon Region and, secondly, a sitting project of a mosque in Liège (Belgium).
We aim at proving that citizens must control the decision-making process in order to develop their actions. The latter is possible accordingly to three characteristics of what we define as "expert-citizens": their resources ("I can"), their background ("I know") and their interests to act ("I want"). Yet, even though the decision-making process can have a positive effect on participation and involvement of citizens, we relativize their ability to influence.

Julien Talpin

CERAPS, Université Lille II

The study of the individual effects of participation has mainly focused on the impact of deliberation on actors' preferences, mostly based on experimental research. Starting with a systematic critique of this experimental and cognitivist perspective, we offer on the contrary a praxeologic and processual approach to the study of the effects of participants on groups and individuals. Based on a ethnographic study in a participatory budget, we draw a comprehensive scheme going from institutions to individuals and conversely. It starts by taking into account the learning potential offered by institutions. We then stress that a condition for the durability of the learning processes observed is that participation be repeated over time. This requires integration within the institution, which is the case for only a few participants. Speaking the language of the institution, these participants are integrated enough to acquire further civic skills and knowledge, and even to endure a politicization process. Finally, the study of actors' long-term trajectories allows drawing ideal-typical individual careers. These consequences cannot be attributed to participation alone however.

Sophie Thunus

Since the beginning of the 2000th, the World Health Organization invites governments to promote mental health and suggests an original conception of it, as well as therapeutic and political solutions, among other the involvement of users.
The WHO's recommendations integrate progressively the Belgian policy discourse. In 2005, they find a concrete expression within a specific public action instrument. This one is composed of two levels. On the one hand, local projects through which both professionals and users have experimented work conditions in mental health networks. On the other hand, a transversal part where the projects' representatives have shared the learning arising from their new practices, in order to inscribe it within policy recommendations.
We suggest mobilizing a case study relating to the transversal part with the aim of confronting this conception of mental health and the associated discourse about participation with the practices they have provoked. Indeed, by combining documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews and observations, this case study allows us to dissect the mechanisms of the participation process, and to question the resort to experience-based knowledge, its utility, and its utilization (?).

Workshop 2-2 : Effects on the collective mobilizations: taking into account the civil society and setting proof against scientific knowledge

Discussants : Pieter Leroy (Radboud Universiteit, Nijmègue) & Emmanuel Picavet (Laboratoire "Logiques de l'Agir", Université de Franche-Comté)

Martine Antona, Emmanuelle Cheyns

Participation and decision-making: analysis of systems to set up durable management of resources in industries in the South

Eve Bureau

Nowadays, most of HIV programs involve users in implementation of activities that concern them and in discussions on community choices. Lay participation has become an international norm promoted by all HIV institutions. In Cambodia, this norm has had a considerable impact. Since early 2000, people living with HIV have been recruited throughout Cambodia at all levels of the care structure, as counsellors, therapeutic educators and animators of support group. I show how this international initiative is interpreted locally in a context in which people living with HIV do not decide themselves whether to participate. In fact, participation is reinterpreted according to the Cambodian structural and socio-cultural context and takes a completely different form, which is sometimes contrary to its initial goal. A review of the unexpected and contradictory effects of participation underlines the flexible nature of the participation and the power of so called "civil society" to avoid the institutional objectives.

Jean-Christophe Graz, Marc Audétat, Danielle Bütschi Häberlin, Christophe Hauert, Alain Kaufmann

CRII et Interface Science Société, Université de Lausanne
International normalization to the test of the participation of the associations

Our paper presents a pilot project (INTERNORM) funded by the University of Lausanne to support the involvement of not-for-profit organisations in international standard setting bodies such as the ISO. It analyses preliminary results on how a distinct participatory mechanism can influence the institutional environment of technical diplomacy in which ISO standards are developed. It reflects on the contribution of innovative deliberative mechanisms to democratise the field of international standardisation, largely dominated by expert knowledge and market players. It draws upon international relations literature on new institutional forms in global governance and social studies of science on participatory issues in science-society relations. The paper argues that there are significant limitations to the rise of civil society participation in such global governance mechanisms and examines several types of barriers to the involvement of not-for-profit organisations in ISO standard-setting processes.

Katharina Schlierf, Rémi Barbier

In the field of environmental governance, public participation provokes profound changes in the kind of proofs used for justifying projects. Seeking a sort of "cooperative governance" particularly with environmental NGOs, these projects -for instance in the field of waste management- increasingly have to prove their "environmental pertinence". This new "calculative space" is nurtured by environmental assessment tools: life cycle assessments, ecological footprints, carbon accounting. These tools are more and more used by project owners, partly also as a result of the development of supportive legislation.
In this paper, we will describe such use in two cases of waste management practice, presenting the preliminary results of the research project Proddeval funded by ADEME. More precisely, we will analyse the trajectory of the criterion of environmental pertinence throughout the decision making process, to highlight its forms, transformations and successive roles.
This analysis allows us to state, on the one side, the use of a criterion of environmental pertinence in order to justify the project to anticipated citizen mobilisation, and, on the other, the diversification and increasing complexity of the initial role of the tools throughout the decision making process. Finally, we will discuss the possibility to articulate this new calculative space with cooperative governance.

Workshop 3-2 : Effects on public action: l'impact sur la décision

Discussants : Laurence Bherer (Université de Montréal) & Pierre-Benoît Joly (SenS-INRA, IFRIS)

Guy El Karim Berthomé

A deep investigation in the local waste management sector leads us to the following observation:
- Theories which restore well the nature of the decision which is elaborated in participative planning, could hardly serve to specify the value of such a decision.
- Conversely, theories which depict well the question of the value of these joint decisions, evoke hardly where they come from and what they incorporate (their nature).
This article develops a reflection based on analysis components coming from various disciplines, adopting a specific entry by a "principal - agents" viewpoint. His vocation is to free participative decision theory from this situation of partial gap between theories and observations. The definition of existence conditions of a participative decision follows.

Thomas Delahais

The rejection of the Constitutional treaty by both the French and the Dutch, in 2005, triggered a reflection period for the European institutions and their leaders, which was all about listening what citizens had to say. From 2006 to 2009, the European Commission invested 10 million euros in a hundred debates all across Europe, among which quite a number of participatory, or even deliberative projects were organised.
However, despite the good will of the implementing organisations and, mostly, good standards of the debates, their innovative features too, their effects on the public sphere and its stakeholders could hardly be detected. This communication, based on first-hands observations, considers the reasons explaining this lack of effects. It builds upon an evaluation made upon request of DG Communication in 2009.

Sophie Largeau

This paper builds on the ex-post evaluation of a "mini public" citizens' workshop which took place at the General Council of Val-de-Marne with the aim of gathering recommendations for the development of its male / female equality policy. It analyzes the effects of consultation on the construction of public action and on the final decision, as well as the conditions for success, in the subsequent stage of the workshop : of "consideration" of advice, routing citizens' recommendations towards a decision space.
Without necessarily undermining the taking a measurement of the process' deliberative qualities, nor its effects, in terms of "empowerment" of the participants, strengthened in their collective and individual creative ability, nor the originality of the content of the final opinion, this paper analyzes the consultation's contribution to decision making. It observes the tensions and dynamics of change at work in organizational systems and how a procedure, such as the "mini public", questions the channels, the decision areas and the construction of a cross-cutting policy.
The political and administrative willpower as well as the "citizen power" that forms the deliberative energy emerges as a second process to have an effect on decision making.

Workshop 4-2 : Context and evaluation of public participation: uses of the participative tools and devices

Discussants : Laurence Monnoyer-Smith (COSTECH, Université de Technologie de Compiègne) & Yves Sintomer (CRESSPA, Université Paris VIII)

Audrey Richard-Ferroudji

Participative settings have to be opened while exclusion is observed most of the time. Following the French so-called "pragmatic sociology", this paper studies the framing of such settings to understand the difficulties encountered in the opening. This paper focuses on tensions, relying on Thévenot's framework of "regime of engagement" (Thévenot 2000) and particularly on the exploratory regime (Auray 2010). This article addresses the issues by describing a case study conducted in the Thau basin, south of France. We observed diverse settings (among them a public face to face debate, an online co-writing and a prospective process). It discusses the very conditions of exploratory engagement and the recognition of differences.

Julia Bonaccorsi, Magali Nonjon

CÉDITEC, Université Paris-Est Créteil et CERAPS, Université d'Avignon
"The public participation in kit form": the gloomy prospects of the participatory ideal?

We analyze the "fabrication" of participation as one of the places where the participation is produced as a "culture". This engineerings include agents involved at different levels in the implementation of participatory democracy (trainers, designers, consultants) but also devices that support the projects. Thus, we question the devices of participation, considering that they are too often view as naturalized mediations. We focalize in particular two examples relating to visual representations of the territory through the analysis of a "kit participatory" and participatory mapping experiments with a sociological and semiotic approach. The "formats" of participation can be analyzed as "intellectual technologies" of the debate. The professionalization of the sector is one factor of modelization (tools) and of definition for roles of agents . The question of analyzing the effects of the decision is off-center: rather than proposing criteria for evaluation or observation, here we open the debate on the engineering part of participatory democracy. This "monstration" of participation tools can be seen as a circumvention of impact's assessment about the decision.

Francis Rousseaux, Eddie Soulier, Jacky Legrand, Florie Bugeaud, Houda Neffati, Pierre Saurel

CReSTIC, Université de Reims / Tech-CICO, Université de Technologie de Troyes / CERSA, Paris II / IUT de Sceaux / Paris IV
Territorial participatory  organisation of the space: a case study of the Vallée scientifique de la Bièvre as multidimensionnal network

The research focuses on the Vallée Scientifique de la Bièvre, promoted as a territory of the Grand-Paris by a group of public personalities, and positioned in counterpoint to the cluster of Paris-Saclay.
We mobilize heterotopias imagined by Michel Foucault in 1967 to shine in its outlook, and the Deleuzian notion of Fonction d'agencement.
The participatory schemes built to make public action might usefully be analyzed as networks, linking entities and heterogeneous dimensions. We operationalized this idea to view the structure of collective systems as relative identity and relational determinations. The network of relations then becomes an aid to understanding the effects of participation in collective actions.
To what extent is the web bearing the traces of participation actions? For a wealth of attributes then link to "empty substances", we can see the emergence of agents (the "empty substance" becomes "active unit") and detect association actions movements between substances and attributes.
This technique allows data mining to question the dynamic of collective actions in a new way.