Abstracts

Fourth Doctoral Days
on Public Participation and Participatory Democracy

Université Lille 2 – 13-14th november 2015

 

Friday, November 13th

Atelier 1 : Factors of participative engagement and representations of democracy

  • Chair : Marion Paoletti (Centre Émile Durkheim, Université de Bordeaux)
  • Discussants : JulienTalpin (Ceraps, Lille 2), Rémi Barbier (Gestion territoriale de l’eau et de l’environnement, ENGEES)
Cadel Cynthia (GRePS, Université Lyon 2), “A psychosocial approach of citizen participation : the inhabitants’ perspective“
Considering the political disaffection of citizens, or at least a commitment mutation, our goal is to investigate what “citizen participation” means to the most involved people: the citizens, and to understand what this reveals about their relationship to public policies, and more broadly to politics. The aim of this paper is to present and to discuss an epistemological and methodological proposal to analyze the phenomena of the participation of detained citizens: from their motivations, to the effects of participating, passing through the experience of commitment and the position of withdrawal. The choice of a territorial approach that compares invitations to participate (resulting from both public actions as well as association members or informal groups) to the expectations and practices of the targeted persons enables the analysis of the perceptions and projections of individuals who commit or do not commit. The first results of the qualitative phase of our research will be discussed, especially through the concept of psychological space (Lewin, 1939, 1943); we will then present future perspectives on the understanding of the psychosocial issues of participation.
 
Jacquet Vincent (ISPOLE, Université catholique de Louvain (UCL)), “Participation and non-participation in mini-publics
This paper offers an empirical analysis of participation and non-participation to two mini-publics in Belgium, the so-called G1000 and G100. These two deliberative experiences were built on the assumption that people want to be involved in political deliberation about public issues. Yet, the following question remains: Why do some citizens refuse and others accept to deliberate in mini-publics? Indeed, less than three percent of randomly selected citizens accepted to attend. Analysing thirty-eight in-depth interviews with participants and above all non-participants, this paper shows that motives of acceptance and non-acceptance are always related to the evaluation of the political context and political actors. Five discourses on the political process (suspicious discourse, professional discourse, post-electoral discourse, partisan discourse, lost representative discourse) shape the interpretation of the mini-publics. The meaning of participation and non-participation differ in function of theses discourses, which results in different kinds of participation and non-participation.
 
Petit Guillaume (CESSP-CRPS, Paris 1), “Social space and participation patterns in participatory devices”
Participatory engagement can be understood as an adjustment between objective possibilities and subjective appropriation and appraisal. We ask: who participate? To what? And why? We assert that sociology of participatory engagement has to take in account three layers: framing, social factors and motives of participation.
In order to contextualize the effects of framing on social factors, we compare three cities in which different kinds of participatory opportunities have been set up: lasting neighborhood councils or project-based participatory devices. This paper focused on the depiction of social space of participation to illustrate socially specific patterns of participation.
Our study confirms social selectivity of participatory devices, but underlines the importance of length of residence. The most engaged participants build civic careers which are variably accomplished, reiterating the significance of social factors but also underlining different framing effects. 
 

Atelier 2 : Social democracy and participative mediations

  • Chair : Marion Carrel (CeRIES Lille 3, CEMS-EHESS)
  • Discussants : Martine Legris-Revel (Ceraps, Lille 2), Loïc Blondiaux (CESSP, Université Paris 1)
Haute Tristan (CERAPS, Université Lille 2), “Voting or striking? First results of a study of workers’ electoral behaviors in professional elections in France.
In this communication, we propose to discuss the relationships between social conflicts, especially strikes, and electoral behaviors of workers in professional elections. Two forms of participation can be opposed : a “conventional” one and a “non-conventional” one. This communication is part of our thesis focusing on explicating variables of workers electoral behaviors in professional elections.
The 20th August 2008's Law established electoral results as the main element to measure the representativity of labour unions in France while social conflicts take on new forms and method of action. In parallel of this phenomenon, election and negotiation legitimize and institutionalize more and more a « social democracy” system. Although social conflicts are progressively seen and presented as declining, authors have observed a positive correlation between social conflicts and negotiations. The question is what is the status and stakes of professionnal elections in the establishment of this « social democracy” in France?

Leclercq Benjamin (CRH-LAVUE, Université Paris 8), “Externalization of the participation by social housing landlords as an instrument of social relationships’ regulation : the case of reference tenants’ network
Acknowledging the increasing distance between institutions and population in working-class neighborhoods, professionals of citizens’ participation appear necessary to engage discussions. In a context of public finances crisis, social landlords become the main funder of these professionals of mediation. This position gives them a central role in the operational part of urban policies called “Urban Social Development” programs (Développement Social Urbain). However, social landlords remain business oriented housing managers. As such, they tend to consider participatory democracy disposals like a tool to improve their company’s objectives.
This presentation focuses on a flagship program launched in the frame of Urban Social Development, namely the creation of reference tenants’ network. The presence of local referees among the tenants certainly helps improving social housing business management. Nevertheless, I will show how appealing to a third party in developing a participatory approach contributes in changing interactions modes between actors in neighborhoods targeted as a priority within urban policies.
 
Lhopital Fabien (Centre Max Weber, Université Lyon 2), “Cooperation between production cooperative members. Case study of two French production cooperatives in the Rhône-Alpes region
Production cooperatives, and more generally the cooperative movement and the social economy movement, have become an alternative between the capitalist economy and the public economy. Cooperatives promote many values: democratic participation, workers health and safety, employees ownership of the production facilities, reasonable use of resources etc. Studies in management sciences, economy, history and geography have analyzed production cooperatives. The purpose of my research is to provide a sociological angle of professional interactions with a micro-social approach. Observations and interviews in two production cooperatives in the Rhône-Alpes region will help me to analyse the cooperation between workers/partners by answering this main question: is their participation really democratic as indicated by its statutes ?

Atelier 3 : Mobilizations facing the institutionalization of participation

  • Chair : Pieter Leroy (Université de Nimègue)
  • Discussants : Marie-Gabrielle Suraud (Certop, Toulouse 3), Jean-Gabriel Contamin (Ceraps, Université Lille 2)

Carlino Vincent (CREM, Université de Lorraine), “Protesting Cigéo (Bure): to inform or counter-inform people ?
This paper confronts institutional areas of debate to citizen mobilizations. Our main hypothesis is the conflict between promoters and opponents of environmental planning projects frames the debate in the public space. From the case of the setting up of a radioactive waste center in eastern France (named Cigéo), we show that controversies are framed in politic, media and activist arenas. Until 1990's, the protest has mainly grown in the activist arena, taking from the repertoire of contention of former french antinuclear protests. From now on, it tends to reach other arenas and don't only take place in demonstrations. Activists participate to institutional areas of debate in order to be heard. Although their main goal is to deliver alternative information, activits develop more complex forms of protest. Promoters as well as opponents interact each other to affirm their own vision and representation of problems. They act and speak to audiences who want to inform themselves.

Khallouki Dounia (LET, ENTPE), “Mobilisations around the airport project Notre-Dame-des-Landes: structures and impact on decision-making
In the past few years, airport expansion or creation projects led to conflicts and tensions with the local population. In the case of the Notre-Dame-Des-Landes airport project, the conflict led to important  delays in its realization, and the outcome of the project is still uncertain. Conflicts around airports lead to many questions, like for instance the impact of mobilization on the decision process. This paper aims to present our first results on the Notre-Dame-Des-Landes airport project. First, the idea is to discuss the existent literature about airport conflicts. Then, we will present the main steps of this project, in order to identify the moments when tensions between the different actors are the most important. We will also focus on the associative actors and their links with the people currently occupying the site of the future airport. 

Mabi Clément (Costech, Université de Compiègne), “The environmental dialogue facing the movements against ‘UIMP
In recent years, is emerging among opponents the concept of struggle against the "Useless Imposed Mega-Projects" (UIMP) to describe their opposition to the draft planning projects. By this way it is to operate a form of rise in generality, to impose a particular framing these movements registering in a collective dynamic of challenging projects with associated values. Thus, oppose locally participate in projects of a struggle against a development model and choice of wider society. The success of the concept has been staggering, reported by the media and popularized by some key folders (Notre Dame des Landes, Sivens, Cigéo ...). The proposed work is at the crossroads of information and communication sciences, sociology of controversies and political science, and has to rely with a fieldwork (interviews, observation, content analysis ...) to examine more specifically the report that "UIMP" have with participatory democracy. We propose the hypothesis that their emergence reflects the limits of "participatory solutions" proposed and require "environmental dialogue" to reinvent itself.

Tindon Cécile (UMR GESTE, Strasbourg), “Social mobilizations for water management: institutionnalization and resistances to institutionnalization towards civic regulation”
The communication treats of the mobilisation of associations for drinkable water and its contribution to the water regulation. Developped in the 1990’s because of important price raises and water cases, in a sector stated as secretive, they offered to participate in the water management. They became integrated in participative mechanism such as advisory commissions of local public utilities (CCSPL) but refused both the depolitised status of representants of water users, and high level debats. On the contrary, they stressed out an identity of “water citizens » as well as an enlightened, vigilant and critical approache in order to play a role of counter-power. These counter-powers, to exist and to be perpetuated as political and critical shapes, resisted to various forms of institutionnalization of participation and specialization. Thank to negociations, trials and safeguards as well as militant skills and experiences, those associations are producing an effective counter institutionnalization of a civic regulation in the water sector.

Atelier 4 : Institutionalizing participation for making up territories

  • Chair : Corinne Larrue (Lab’Urba, École d’urbanisme de Paris)
  • Discussants : Mario Gauthier (Université du Québec en Outaouais), Ludivine Damay (Université Saint-Louis - Bruxelles (USL-B))
Bally Frédéric (LLSETI, Université Savoie Mont-Blanc), “Build the city without institutions: a becoming citizen reality ?”
Despite the strength of today’s globalization, and its multiple positive and negative externalities, city, local politic and economy are the primary scene for a vision and practice change of democracy. Beyond different devices of participatory democracy, city is also the place where citizens want to put nature and right in front. Indeed, we see a coming up, for a few years now, of what’s we called in this communication “citizens’ initiatives » on the territory of Lyon. These movements want to take charge of fields that are neglected by public action, and to represent concrete solutions to reinvent territory, city and community harmony. Within this presentation, we will define these citizens’ initiatives, while relying on risk sociology. We will also precise their relationship with Grand Lyon Metropole, this in order to bring out the bottom-up strength of these initiative.
 
Deprez Paul et Yann Bertacchini (Laboratoire DeViSu, Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambrésis, et i3M, Université de Toulon),“Project territory to the territory sustainable development project sustainability : new approaches to participation in local authorities”
The purpose of this paper is to study the potential of the "network-territory", that to say the deployment of information technology, and communications, to emerge virtually play with stakeholders territorial projects. Thus, we have chosen the territorial sustainable development projects to understand how projects are the stakeholders "network-territory" : first according to their position on the evolution of Web 2.0 and other, depending on their alignment on uses of the web by Internet users in their information search strategies and content creation. It will therefore be to analyze the conquest of cyberspace by local authorities at the time or now join premium on the search. In other words, use of behavior now web community where membership in a community replaces the search for "classic" information.

Diana Iacopo Luca (Università degli studi di Cagliari), “Participatory democracy in Italy : propositions for a smart institutionalization and the example of the regulation for the commons.
The purpose of this article is to offer a critical analysis of the peculiar status of the participatory democracy in Italy. Often associated to sporadic experiences, primarily scattered all around the national territory, this form of participation lacks a better overall view and clear rules. Adopting a national regulation on the citizens’ participation to the public decision
process may provide a positive response to this kind of weaknesses and uncertainties, in as much as it enables a unified progression of the participation rights. On one hand
this regulation could guide the local institutions establishing some principles to follow, allowing for stability and continuity to the local participatory processes. On the other hand, such regulation would provide for more flexibility in order to develop the mobilisation and the bottom-up propositions of participation. Faced with the lack of a participatory culture, which is not yet rooted in Italy, this article sustains the positive value of an institutionalisation’s process at a  national level.
 
Montrieux Gabriel (Triangle, Université Lyon 2), « Setting a standard of eco-citizenship, between legitimation of a social order and negotiated subversion »
 

Atelier 5 : Innovative participatory tools and democratical theories

  • Chair : Stéphane Guérard (Ceraps, Lille 2)
  • Discussants : Samuel Hayat (Ceraps, Lille 2), Luigi Bobbio (Université de Turin)
Aras Melis (Centre européen de recherche sur le droit des accidents collectifs et des catastrophes (CERDACC), Université de Haute-Alsace), “eParticipation in decision-making processes: ‘experimental democracy’ between simplification and democratization
Democracy should be reviewed continuously in order to update and to reconstruct this concept. This need for updating is developed by the pragmatic philosophy through the concept of “experimentation”. Currently, we have enough technical and legal elements to “experiment” democracy, particularly in the light of electronic communication. In the decision making process via electronic tools, there are different arrangements for the implementation of the public participation. These devices have their sources in different legal regimes. Also, they have different goals: simplification and democratization. The differentiation of goals, even if we use the same technical tools, asks a question: are we using electronic communication tools to simplify and modernize the conventional procedures, or for more democratic participatory procedures? Two possibilities can of course coexist. In practice, there is also the movement of those purposes. This study offers a comparative approach to legal devices using electronic communication while questioning its conceptual goals.
 
Courant Dimitri (LAGAPE (UNIL) et CRESPPA (Paris 8)), “Thinking sortion. Modes of selection, deliberative frameworks and democratic principles
If the abstract democratic ideal has become hegemonic, its so called concrete institutional forms are facing a violent “crisis of representation”. Many democratic experimentations based on the random selection (or sortition) of participants are developing, along with various academic research and activist claims. But each thinker, experimentation, or militant group, is giving a different explanation of what sortition is, as well as why and how we should use it. Our proposal is to construct a more general theory of random selection and its multiple forms in a comparative approach; to think sortition through a cross perspective in order to get a better understanding of its theoretical constant despite the empirical diversity of concrete uses depending on the institutions and contexts in which sortition is implemented. What forms of representation, deliberation and participation are produced by sortition, comparatively to the other modes of selection?
First, we shall compare sortition to the three other selection’s modes: election, nomination and certification. Second, we will analyse the frameworks of deliberative participation. Finally, we will distinguish four principles of sortition: equality, impartiality, representativeness and legitimacy-humility as opposed to legitimacy-superiority. 
 
Danner Fernando (Phico, Paris 1 et Universidade Federal de Rondônia (Brésil)), « Rawls’s Deliberative Democracy, Reason Public and Political Legitimacy »
In this article I would like to reflect on the Rawls’s concept of deliberative democracy. Some authors of deliberative democracy have argued that the main problem of the Theory of Justice (1971) is the problem of social justice and not the legitimacy of political power and the theoretical procedure established by it does not allow a real public and informed debate between citizens. In my view, there is, in the Theory of Justice, at least two constituent ideas of the ideal of deliberative democracy: the first is that the original position is regarded as a fair system of public justification; the second is that the original position is based on the requirements of impartiality, reciprocity and rationality (or mutual benefit), that are constitutive of a democratic conception of political justice. In Political Liberalism (1993), with the introduction of the idea of "public reason", the Rawls’s purpose was to offer a complete process of justification of his conception of political justice. The main problem of Liberalism is the problem of political stability in a constitutional democratic society marked by the fact of reasonable pluralism. What kind of reasons the reasonable and rational citizens could apply in public justification? This is the role of public reason. The delineation indicates that it proposes fundamental justice politicals themes and decisions should be treated on the basis of political values and therefore not from reasonable comprehensive doctrines. Such definition does not exclude comprehensive arguments of public deliberation (for example, a religious argument). However, the fundamental political issues must be taken from values (policy) common to all individuals. 
 
Vandamme Pierre-Étienne (Chaire Hoover d’éthique économique et sociale-ISP, Université catholique de Louvain (UCL)), “The Justified Vote: A Tool for Articulating Votes and Deliberations”
The articulation of votes and deliberations is one of the neglected questions in the contemporary literature on deliberative participation. Compared with the “unforced force of the better argument” at stake in discussions aimed at reaching agreement, votes are the result of a balance of power: the law of the greater number. Furthermore, voting is generally performed in secret and is a deeply monological act. Yet the main virtues of deliberations stem from their publicity – fostering the consideration of the general interest – and dialogic character – stimulating the questioning of one’s opinions and the openness to others. From a deliberative perspective, the secret ballot practice appears unsatisfying. The idea of a justified vote aims at combining the respective benefits of secrecy and publicity by promoting a deliberative attitude in the voting booth.
 

Atelier 6 : Design of participation and informal experimentations

  • Chair : Rémi Barbier (Gestion territoriale de l’eau et de l’environnement, ENGEES)
  • Discussants : Clément Mabi (Costech et Gis D&P), Paula Cossart (Ceries, Lille 3)

Alauzen Marie (CSI, Mines ParisTech), Seduction, design and playful experience of participation: a survey of the new digital ergonomics of the State
 

Ferchaud Flavie (Umr ESO, Université Rennes 2), «The integration of hacking, by citizens participating in public policy. The case of Gare Remix (Lyon, France)»
An analysis, combining formal and informal democratic practices. We are questioning how digital technologies affect the environment and the participation of the public. We observe strong practices of cooperation, both on the Internet, and in physical places.
In the era of digital technologies, the “Do-It-Yourself” and the “Make” movements both influence urban planning; in collaboration with the notions of open innovation, and experimentation. The event named Gare Remix took place in April 2015, in Lyon (France), and was investigated within the framework of my PhD. It reveals the convergence of these phenomena; concerning the simultaneous development of digital practices, and changes in participation. In the end, Gare Remix appears as a hybrid socio-technical system, between institutionalization and hacking, a process of both citizen participation and open innovation.

Juan Maïté (LISE (CNAM) et IFRIS), “Participatory governance in collective action, from emancipatory dynamic to political change. Compared analysis of two cultural citizen initiatives, the Ateneo Popular Nou Barris (Barcelone) and Les Têtes de l’art (Marseille)”
This text aims to analyse how cultural citizen initiatives rooted in deprived neighbourhoods of Barcelone and Marseille intend to combine a project of cultural and artistic democracy and  a participatory governance. After presenting the historical genesis of those citizen initiatives,  from informal mobilization to institutionalisation, we will explore how these initiatives can  constitute local public spheres that have the capacity to articulate to intermediate public  spheres to influence public policies. We will focus on the benefits and limits of  democratizacion processes of the governance, which intend to encourage collective learning and an equal participation of stakeholders (volunteers, users, professionals) to decision-making processes but can face both segmentation and cooption logics. Then, we will observe how public authorities intend to shape citizen initiatives and how these initiatives can go beyond institutional framing to become a source of political proposals and institutionnal change.“

Landon Aurélie (CRH-LAVUE, Université Paris 8), “From participation to design thinking: when participation is seized by a nebula of ‘entrepreneurs activists’
My research focused on a novel actor category in the making city process, the “militant entrepreneur”. Common to them is the use of quite a few claims of the social movement while their register of actions take place within an entrepreneurial activity. My PhD is done within the company La Fabrique des Territoires Innovants (with special French contract named CIFRE) and I had the opportunity to participate to the first phase of the competition “Réinventer Paris”. In this article, through this case, I will discuss how the militant entrepreneurs use the participation. Firstly I will focused on the articulation of the notions of participation and innovation in the competition, both as vector of improvement of public policy and as an encouragement to the militant entrepreneurs to be actors of the urban project. Furthermore little attention has so far been given to the figure of the entrepreneurial actor in the participatory literature. Then I will approach the methodology of project management, the design thinking, used by La Fabrique des Territoires Innovants, by exploring an analysis grid of the participation as a public action instrument.

Atelier 7 : Figures of people in democracy

  • Chair : Samuel Hayat (Ceraps, Lille 2)
  • Discussants : Marion Paoletti (Centre Émile Durkheim, Université de Bordeaux), Jean-Michel Fourniau (Dest-Ifsttar & GSPR-EHESS)
Bonnaz François (PACTE, Université de Grenoble),“Political Theory of the movements of the power in direct democracy»
Our hypothesis is : “democracy is in constant movement”, in relation to this idea we suggest to study the dynamics of the power in democracy. Our main goal is to discuss four philosophical works of four different authors: Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Montesquieu and Alexis de Tocqueville. We identify four movements of the power, which can explain the variations of the democracy in each of their papers: the concentration, the equalization, the dissolution and the disappearance. Every power’s dynamics have their own characteristics, their own practical cases, but beyond the descriptive mode, the interest of our reflection is to understand the continuum of the power. We want to understand how can we pass from a movement to an other one? How several movements can live in the same democratic fact? What movement is desirable for a direct democracy? What movement can put in danger the democratic balance? 
 
Cuvelier Claire (CERAPS, Université de Lille 2), « A pluralist definition of the legal concept of people in order to understand the multilevel democracy »
The expression of « demotic pluralism » is used to designate the coexistence of different people in a multilevel system. Contrary to the traditional monist definition of the French people, this contribution aims to demonstrate the possibilty of thinking the coexistence of several demoi in a multilevel system. In order to do so, we explore of the pluralist definition of people in multilevel systems: the federal (India, Germany, United States, Switzerland) and the regional type (Spain, United Kingdom). Then, we submit a theory of multilevel demotic pluralism, which allows to describe and analyse the multilevel democracy. 
 
Rabieb Prangtip (École de droit de la Sorbonne, Université Paris 1), “The controversial concept and effectiveness of the right to participation in the management and exploitation of natural resources for the traditional local communities in Thailand

 
Spoerer Matilde (CESSP, Université Paris 1), “The construction of new participative practices: the regulation of indigenous people's rights in Chile
This paper analyses an institutional mechanism of participation for indigenous people installed in Chile in 2013 : the Consensus Table. This initiative get together government and indigenous people's representatives in order to produce the regulation of the ILO Convention no 169. The norms, procedures and knowledge employed during the deliberation come under different participative models. How and from which references the institutional participation was built? Does the Consensus Table allow to instal a new power relation and to democratize the multicultural policies' decisions? We will show that the Consensus Table is crossed by styles and tendencies which can converge into a same participative discourse but differs in nature. The impact on democratization remains limited as the power relations are not deeply modified and because the decision process remains restricted.
 

Atelier 8 : Forms of participative co-production of public space

  • Chair : Agnès Deboulet (Lavue, Université Paris 8)
  • Discussants : Rémi Lefebvre (Ceraps, Lille 2), Mario Gauthier (Université du Québec en Outaouais)
Gallart Romain et Boulanger Gabrielle (Laboratoire Mosaïques-LAVUE, Univ. Paris Ouest Nanterre, et Laboratoire ArchAologie), “Interpellation to action: the experimentation of community development in an urban renewal project”
This summary forms a part of a thesis that looks at the issue of citizen participation in impoverished neighbourhoods in France and Brazil. It focuses in particular on the French situation, and is based on a participative experiment that the doctoral candidate and the association 'Laboratoir archAologie' carried out in the form of an urban regeneration project. Taking the study of the implementation and subsequent deconstruction of this process that favoured the development of the inhabitants’ power to act as a starting point, the authors will examine the role of the experiment’s main protagonists in exposing the obsolescence of classic methods of analysis, thus challenging the structures of citizenship. In essence, the ethnography of this participative experiment involved unraveling the elected official-civil servant–inhabitant triptych, at least for the duration of the experiment, in order to mobilise new more dynamic and more porous categories. The use of the concept, 'without participation', is a fruitful analysis tool that highlights the 'power relations' in place at the heart of social at times considered homogenous. 
 
Mouhoubi Nedjima (LAVMF, Université de Constantine 3, Algérie), “The effects of the ‘Non-public participation’ in the large urban projects. Case of the project for the modernization of the metropolis of Constantine.”
One of the recognized instruments of public action today is the urban project. Its principles are shared between sustainable development and good governance. This cannot be achieved without the participation of the public in the decision-making. However, few are the urban projects that integrated the participation in their process; such is the case of the project for the Modernization of Constantine (PMMC), one of the pioneer urban projects in Algeria with a great ambition and a grand portage policy, where the inhabitant is placed at the gap.
This communication is about the effects of this non-public participation in urban projects. They come in:
  • "ignorance", which brings us to talk about the inhabitant spectator,
  • "non-ownership" which returns to discuss the separation of the of its inhabitant role of user,
  • "Anger" which is manifested by the challenges of power, public demonstrations.
Finally, the results of the assessment of these effects that are integrated into the pillars decisions-making, organizational and cultural, are based on the results of investigations and exploitation of content carried out in the framework of a thesis on "the tools of management of urban projects in favors of the sustainability".
 
Tendero Marjorie (GRANEM, Université d’Angers), “Some methodological propositions for a participatory process reconciling individual benefits and collective interests. The case of brownfield redevelopment.
Brownfield redevelopment provides opportunities to build sustainable cities for the future. However, brownfield sites are often contaminated from previous industrial activities (e.g. waste disposal, manufacturing, chemical activities or petroleum using services). In France, brownfield redevelopment is justified by a cost-benefit analysis conducted in management plans which are used for brownfield redevelopment projects involving a change in use. Hence, successful brownfield redevelopment projects must meet two conditions. Firstly, all costs, constraints, and benefits resulting from any brownfield redevelopment projects must be correctly anticipated and evaluated. Secondly, it is essential to initiate participatory processes between project stakeholders in order to increase social acceptability of brownfield redevelopment decisions. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodological approach to improve ex-ante stakeholders’ involvement and hence social acceptability of land-use plans in the case of brownfield redevelopment projects. The methodological approach combines three steps. We show how this approach can be applied in order to craft public policy recommendations for urbans planners that could be integrated into any brownfield redevelopment project using an example of a brownfield redevelopment project located in the Pays de la Loire region (France).
 
Vigne Margaux (CRENAU, ENSA Nantes), “Institutional experiments: a description of the effects of "ensauvagement" at work in a specific inhabitants involvement device
Many researches show how participative devices have become public action’s tools, and beyond, tools for "gouvernementalité". These are less often analyzed as opportunities that participants take beyond the foregone objectives. This approach is what we choose, by telling the "uses of participation" story (Rui, 2006), a participatory device adventure and the processes which overflow it from the inside. Nevertheless, we can’t make the economy of a double look, required about these paradoxical dynamic : this communication mobilizes the terms "ensauvagement" and “domestication » that Catherine Neveu (2011) pick up from the Groupe de Recherche Action (GRAC, 2010). This text is part of the research area, "contrasted and relatively unexplored" (Neveu, 2011), on tensions between institutionalizing participation and informal practices and 
mobilizations dynamics (Bacqué, 2006), but with a specific approach, related to the field of spatial and urban planning. This communication develops a description of phenomena observed in the context of an ethnographic survey still running on a field in Brussels: the temporary occupation of “Allée du Kaai”
 
 

Saturday, November 14th

Atelier 9 : Actors and ordinary knowledges in sociotechnical controversises

  • Chair : Julien Talpin (Ceraps, Lille 2)
  • Discussants : Pieter Leroy (Université de Nimègue), Jean-Michel Fourniau (Dest-Ifsttar et GSPR-EHESS)
Bagnolini Guillaume (Centre d’éthique contemporaine-Laboratoire Epsylon, Université de Montpellier), “Legitimacy and Participation in Science, The Case of Biohacking”
The movement of biohackers and Do-it-Yourself Biology (DIYbio) is a recent movement can be described as the achievement of scientific studies in biology outside institutions. The "hacking" is defined by Mitch Altman as "taking what is improving upon it to the best of your abilities and sharing it". The biohacking defends the idea of free sharing of information but also technical like computer hackers. The biohackers are politically engaged and consider biohacking as a reaction against the neo-capitalist society and institutionalized science. They want a reaproppriation of scientific research. How do they do it? I propose in this article to give the main moral and epistemological foundations in the particular case of community laboratories. Secondly, I will show how to operationalize these moral values in the specific case of scientific projects inside these community laboratories. Finally, I would characterize the participation and legitimacy in the scientific activity inside the French network "La paillasse".
 
Lerosier Thomas (Philosophie, pratiques, langages (PPL), Université Grenoble-Alpes), “‘Does the publics in Grenoble can participate to the decisions?’ Technical democracy on trial
In the late 2005, in Grenoble, for nearly 5 years, a small collective is working on reactivating the social movement against science, specifically about the issue of nanotechnology. Grenoble-Alpes Métropole, the local government, receives a report, “Les publics grenoblois peuvent-ils participer aux choix scientifiques et techniques?” (Does the publics in Grenoble can participate to the technical and scientifical decisions?). Ten years later, the question does not seems de be resolved. The report's recommendations on “technical democracy” have not been followed. The instruments for the participation that have been established since the report have been ignored and openly criticized. This article intends to return to these episodes in order to propose some contextualization elements. The article shows that the relation between activists and the institutions is not self-evident. It takes part of the creation of political cultures and is the result of a history whose memory is still alive.
 
Osadtchy Clara (Umr ESO, Université du Maine), « Des formes et des effets de la participation en territoire industriel conflictuel : une possible conciliation ? L’exemple de Fos-sur-Mer (Bouches-du-Rhone) »
 
 

Atelier 10 : Assessing the effects of participation

  • Chair : Luigi Bobbio (Université de Turin)
  • Discussants : Corinne Larrue (Lab’Urba, École d’urbanisme de Paris), Patrice Duran (ISP, ENS Cachan)
El Mnasfi Mustapha (Centre Jacques Berque CNRS, Maroc), « The effects of institutional mechanisms in policies against urban exclusion: the case of participative devices in the NIHD in urban areas in Morocco. »
The objective of the present work is to understand the impact of participative mechanisms at the level of relationship between representatives of public authorities and representatives of the civil society mobilized around the procedures set up within the framework of the « National Initiative for Human Development » (NIHD) in urban areas in Morocco. The data of this research is based on 40 semi-structured interviews. They were conducted with public actors and members of the civil society involved in the « NIHD in urban areas » in Morocco. In this research I argue that the participative mechanisms implemented within the framework of the NIHD in urban areas contribute to the transformation of the relationship between representatives of the public authorities and the association’s representatives. The survey also argues that authorities use the associative resources to produce public action in working class districts. In this context, the associative actors carry out actions which should have been accomplished by public agents. 
 
Hassenforder Émeline (G-EAU, Irstéa Montpellier), « A categorization of the eight institutional effects of public participation in decision-making processes and identification of their drivers »
This communication proposes a categorization of the institutional effects of participation in eight institutional effects. This categorization is based on the distinction between six terms: formal and informal; institutions and organizations; and emergence and change. This categorization allows stakeholders involved in participatory processes to better identify the institutional effects resulting from public participation in decision making processes and to analyze the factors causing these effects. In order to demonstrate how this categorization can be used, I take the example of two cases in the Rwenzori region in Uganda and the Fogera district in Ethiopia, where participatory planning processes for natural resource management have been implemented as part of a development project funded by the European Commission. The identification of factors causing institutional effects is based on the "process tracing" method (George and Bennett 2005) coupled to a "causal cluster" approach (Young 2008). I argue that procedural factors identified in the Ugandan and Ethiopian cases can be used as "levers" by facilitators to foster institutional effects. I will detail several of these levers in my communication.
 
Pommerieux Mélanie (CEPEL, Université de Montpellier), “The effects of participatory processes on public action linked to the constraints of the participatory offer. The case of public participation to environmental management plans in South Africa.
Authoritarian decisions, turned towards development, taken during apartheid have left South Africa with a huge environmental debt. Since then, the participatory principle has been established in the South African environmental laws. Following the evolution over time of participatory processes in this field, from the end of apartheid until nowadays, at the national and local levels, will show how the participatory offer constrains the effects of such processes. Studying the influence of international, national as well as local spheres on such processes will first allow us to show how the institutionalization of the participatory process in the environmental field was done with the support of the international sphere, at a time when the new government had little interest on those environmental issues. Then we will see how the developmental imperative of the new South African democracy tends to minimize the importance given to public participation, before looking at how some actors are on the contrary trying to rely on the public to highlight the importance of certain environmental issues.
 

Atelier 11 : The disgruntled evolution of "democratic Springs"

  • Chair : Luc Picot (Décider ensemble)
  • Discussants : Agnès Deboulet (Lavue, Université Paris 8), Loïc Blondiaux (CESSP, Université Paris 1)

Belhadj Aymen (IRMC (Tunis) et PRODIG, Paris 1), “The Democratic Transition: democracy but towards what? From the Arabic exception to the Tunisian exception!
The objective of this paper is to reconsider the forms of youth participation in the electoral process , the centerpiece of the transitional project in Tunisia. It is trying to account for the variety of this participation mainly during the elections of the Constituent Assembly of 2011 and those of the 2014 legislative and presidential The question is to what extent this process was successful or not to include young people in building democracy at work in the country and to what extent is building democracy or no projections and expectations of these, taking into account socio-economic and political integration problems that were identified by their strong involvement in the revolution of winter 2010/2011. 

Naimi Mohamed (Centre d’études et de recherches en sciences sociales (Cerss), Université Mohamed V, Rabat), “The participation between instituted sphere and not established space in the wake of the "Arab Spring": case of the Moroccan mobilizations.”
Throughout a case study of the February 20 Movement (M20F) in Morocco, this communication aims to highlight the fact that political participation goes beyond electoral and partisan form and gradually integrates collective action protest deployed in public space . In fact, this reality is supported by popular revolutions and uprisings of the "Arab Spring": social movements have become key political actors in today’s civil, society especially in the Arab world since 2011. In Morocco, this is translated by the emergence of M20F. Certainly, the Moroccan Constitution of 2011, as the main response to the demands of the M20F, broadens the scope of political participation by giving associations and NGOs of civil society, new political roles in a participatory democracy. Nevertheless, it has neglected the role of social movements as an active component within a newly non-established civil society. 

Yilmaz Zulfiye (Université Galatasaray (Istanbul) et CRDT, Université de Reims), “Local Referendums in Turkey: Between participatory democracy and control of minority opinions ?
The Turkish Constitution of 1982 provides the only possibility to hold referendums at national level limited to the adoption of the constitutional amendments. However, local referendums exist in Turkey for the merger of the villages, small rural municipalities and determining their boundaries according to the Law No. 5393 on municipalities of 2005. Therefore, consultation of local residents by local authorities is not of a binding nature. Local referendums, even if they do exist for local decisions to limited scope, however, are promoted by the central government and even by local authorities in Turkey when it comes to the legitimacy of local projects.
The issue of local referendums in Turkey highlights the representative democratic deficit at national level and the need to reform the decentralized local administration.
 

Atelier 12 : From ordinary speech to citizen empowerment

  • Chair : Patrice Duran (ISP, ENS Cachan)
  • Discussants : Marion Carrel (Ceries, Lille 3),Jeanne Demoulin  (Mosaïques-LAVUE)

Dufournet Tanguy (Centre Max Weber, Université Lyon 2), “The urban policy neighbourhoods and social action: the relationship between discrimination and residents' participation »
 

Louis Jeremy (Mosaïques-LAVUE, Université Paris Ouest-Nanterre), “The ‘Tables de Quartier’ in France, between social link and social movement
The “Tables de Quartier” are an experiment of local citizen organisations. It was set up by the “Fédération des centres sociaux de France” (1) in the beginning of year 2014. The federation selected twelve local associations to build those organisations in their neighbourhoods. Their goal is to gather other associations and organized neighbours and to build with them collective actions in order to solve local issues ; those actions can make the form of claims to local power or self­organized solutions. This experiment is not really an institutionnal mechanism, even if it's supported by the government; nor it's a social movement, even if it can countain the goal of questionning (state) power. This situation, at the juncture between different approaches of local democracy and empowerment, is the object of this communication ; it's an analysis of the way those “Tables de Quartier” become politicised. By noticing the context of the experiment's launch, and the reality of what it has been producing locally, we'll be able to draw a dinstinction between two types of “Tables de Quartier”, that separate from each other by the way they relate to politics.

Peigney Salomé-Jill (CARISM, Université Paris 2),“The ordinary man participating in democracy : true stories in Pierre Rosanvallon's participatory website ‘Raconter la vie’ (‘Life telling’).
In 2014, Pierre Rosanvallon - a researcher in political sciences specialized in the concept and the history of democracy in France - launched a participatory website and a collection of books published in partnership with “Le Seuil” editions. This collection and this website are both assembled in a project called « Raconter la vie” (« Life telling”). This project consists in permitting people considered as « invisible” to narrate their lives by themselves in a text which can vary from 5 000 to 40 000 characters. These texts are then published on the website and can be downloaded and viewed as free e-books. These « invisible” people’s life can also be narrated by journalists, researchers, writers, as « writing specialists” who decided to take as their object an ordinary aspect of their lives or other people’s life.
Pierre Rosanvallon wish with this project to « restore dignity” of people that he considers as not represented or mis-represented, and so that are invisible in both cases. He doesn’t mention either media or political representation but just talks about « representing” the society to make it more readable and visible. In this way he considers that those people who are part of the French society would have the feeling to be more listened by the other members of this society and by its governance. It would permits to restore confidence that permits to live together in a democratic society.
In this ambitious project, we question the two meanings of the notion of “representation” - as an imitation and as a mandate - which are not distinguished here, in the wish of considering them as a power to give back to individuals.

Pitasse Fragoso Katarina (Chaire Hoover d’éthique économie et sociale, Université catholique de Louvain (UCL)), “Involving the poor: a non-paternalistic way of fighting poverty
This paper aims at defending a non-conditional and participative policy in fighting poverty. To develop this idea, I will first distinguish conditional and non-conditional transfer policies on the base of two practical cases, respectively the Bolsa Família program in Brazil, and GiveDirectly in Kenya, exploring their strengths and weaknesses in the light of a multidimensional conception of poverty. I will then consider and contrast two unconditional ways of giving the poor their due, the liberal and the participative. Finally, we will put forward arguments against the conditionality of assistance, thus tackling poverty in its multiple dimensions in a more legitimate way, which is by enabling the poor’s participation in the elaboration of the programs in question.