Abstracts

Third Doctoral Days
on Public Participation and Participatory Democracy

Université Victor Segalen – Bordeaux, 22-23th november 2013

Friday november 22 morning :

9h – 11h : 2 Parallel Workshops

Workshop 1 : “Actors and common knowledge in socio-technical controversies

Chairman : Rémi Barbier (Gestion territoriale de l'eau et de l'environnement, ENGEES)
Discussants : Sezin Topçu (CEMS, Institut Marcel Mauss et IFRIS) et Marie-Gabrielle Suraud (CERTOP, Toulouse 3)
 
Chailleux Sébastien, Centre Émile Durkheim (IEP Bordeaux) et Département de sociologie de l’Université Laval de Québec, « L’impossible accommodement entre délibération publique et expertise dans la controverse sociotechnique sur les gaz de schiste »
The shale gas industry can be considered as a sociotechnical controversy in France and Quebec because this innovative industry is still a struggle between multiple stakeholders defending diverse expertise (Collins and Evans, 2007) and opinion. Each of them tries to translate (Akrich et al., 2006; Callon, 1986) this new industry with their own definition. Instruments of public action (Lascoumes and Le Galès, 2004) chosen to manage this controversy embedded specific power relationships and led to a particular understanding of the controversy, pushing away the definition of the controversy as an hybrid forum (Callon et al., 2001).
 
Dolisy Dominique, GSPR (EHESS) et AgroParisTech, « The local residents at the heart of the subjects dealt by the Local Commission of Information (CLI) of the nuclear power plant of Nogent-sur-Seine »
We would like to focus on the closest power plant to Paris. We deal with the territory of Nogent-sur-Seine, and its local people, summing up the concerns raised by the Local Commission of Information when it was, set up. We would like to highlight the matter that the plantside resident is as “transparent” legally as the, order-word of nuclear safety. And this Commission should be more aware and concern by its potential, impact on the citizens. In order to give them the opportunity of expressing themselves, they could benefit, from a reinforced information on a long-term basis. Originally, the role of the Commission in, Nogent-sur-Seine could be regarded as major to make the locals more knowledgeable in a field where there, are many gaps to bridge among the population, to a varied extent. Our aim is to try to have an analytical, approach, to deal with an ethnographical work within the everyday life in Nogent sur Seine.We shall try to, explore the various achievements of the work implemented by the Commission. Initially, its role also, consisted of a social tool to comply with the technical implications of the nuclear power plant. However,, the Commission might improve favoring a “capabilitie for voice”, into a domain, where the asymetry of, knowledge is considerable. We postulate that this commission, in spite of its previous vocation of tool of, technical and social “acceptability”, could watch to be this place of exchanges, creator of opportunities for, the training of the local resident’s “values”. A long-term process of learning has already been implemented, within the members of the Commission themselves. This citizen’s mediation bureau in Nogent-sur-Seine, give them the opportunity of raising a wide-range of questions, controversies, questionable matters and, concerns…This diversity underlines the difficulties to put in the agenda, appropriate subjects, which are, specific to the commission, ranking the local resident at the heart of its concerns.
 
Merlin Julien, CSI (MinesParisTech), « Faire participer une nouvelle catégorie d’acteur : les autochtones de Nouvelle-Calédonie face à l’exploitation minière »
 
Seguin Laura, CITERES (Université de Tours), « Les apprentissages de la participation environnementale. Une analyse conjointe entre procédure institutionnalisée de participation et mobilisation collective »
 

Workshop 2 « Assessing the effects of public participation»

Chairwoman : Sandrine Rui (Centre Émile Durkheim, Bordeaux 2)
Discutant : Rémi Lefebvre (CERAPS, Lille 2) et Laurence Monnoyer-Smith (Costech et CNDP)
 
Férezin Élodie, CERTOP (Toulouse 3), « La portée d’un débat public : restructuration de la société civile. Le cas du projet LGV Bordeaux-Toulouse à Agen »
This article joins within the scope of a doctoral research in progress whose the attention is concerned the links between ecological democracy and national planning. The realization of the high-speed railway line on the section Bordeaux-Toulouse was the object of a public debate in 2005. However by analyzing this long-term project, on the eve of the public utility inquiry, the contesting of the opportunity of this infrastructure is stronger than ever. Contesting carried sometimes by "citizens as local residents",  sometimes by " local residents as citizens". Although the objective of the debate is to favor the participation of the public, it would seem that the latter has difficulty in finding its place between a role assigned by the building owner and a will to express himself. Over time, this ambivalence turns out to continue, feeding strongly the controversy around the opportunity of the project.
 
Hassenforder Émeline, G-Eau (IRSTEA) et Université Nationale d’Australie, « Assessing the institutional impacts of a participatory planning process »
Many places around the world are victims of environmental degradation. This paper is based on the assumption that these environmental degradations require human intervention in order to try and reverse them, or at least stop them or slow them down and that the sustainability of the impacts of these interventions can only be achieved through a participatory approach and the guarantee of an adequate institutional and organizational environment. This paper proposes a monitoring and evaluation framework associated with a set of tools aiming at measuring institutional and organizational effects of a participatory planning process. These tools were implemented in two case studies in Africa (the Rwenzori region in Uganda and the Fogera watershed in Ethiopia). The final part of the article analyzes the procedural difficulties that have arisen during implementation and reveals a number of operational learnings and subsequent amendments as a lead towards more adaptive evaluation methodologies of participatory processes.
 
Morales Valérie, Sciences Sociales du Sport, (Université de Strasbourg), « Les effets d’un dispositif participatif local dans le milieu sportif. L’exemple des États Généraux du sport de Strasbourg »
 
Mouloudi Hicham, École Nationale d’Architecture de Rabat (Université Mohammed V-Agdal), « The effects of the participation of inhabitants and local elected representatives on the decision-making concerning rabat’s waterfront development projects between technical expertise and political claims »
The development of water fronts has been in Morocco a key element of the discourse on the city since the early 2000s. As soon as it begins to materialize, it symbolically marks the landscape. However, this implementation has shown, in the case of Valley of Bou Regregdevelopmentand Rabat Cornice projects, that a number of individuals, acting alone or in groups, were able to contest decisions and oppose the process initiated. Some protesters argued technical expertise which weighed heavily on the outcome of negotiations with the project owner. Others have raised political demands by asking, implicitly or explicitly, the question of the distribution of powers and citizens’ participation. These claims are, ultimately, one of the aspects of the confrontation between different legitimacies which sometimes intersect or collide more often, during the design and the implementation of an urban project : a "scientific" and technical legitimacy of the project owner, a political legitimacy from elected officials who leverage or sometimes exploit a third form of legitimacy, social and territorial that emanates from residents, users and professionals who have gradually built and achieved recognition.
 

11h15 – 13h15 : 2 Parallel Workshops

Workshop 3 « Biopolitics and participation »

Chairman : Francis Chateauraynaud (GSPR, EHESS)
discussants : Denis Salles (ADBX, Irstéa) et Clémence Bedu (CG94)
 
Fauquette Alexandre, CERAPS (Lille 2), « Contribution to a sociology of users participation in healthcare system : from the multidisciplinary health centers to the social movements  »
Today, there is a consensus on the fact that it’s necessary to make users participate in health policy. But, behind this consensus, there are power struggles, competitions between actors and some tensions between political institutions and social movements. From the example of multidisciplinary centers projects and some social movements, we propose to analysis the different meanings that are covered by the concept of user’s participation in healthcare system. We try also to study the competition between actors that emerge from the question of user’s participation. Finally, this paper is an invitation to think about the specifics of the participatory injunction in healthcare system through the prism of political and institutional competitions.
 
Montrieux Gabriel, Triangle (Lyon 2), « What forms of integration of underprivileged populations in the participatory mechanisms of consumption ?  »
Participatory mechanisms of food consumption can be thought as a way of expression for citizen power in the economic field,  specially through the « consumer-actor » (consom’acteur) figure. Participation as an issue is mostly directed to the participation of underprivileged parts of the society. By comparing three models of participatory consumption mechanisms, the analysis will question how do this differents mechanisms to adapt itself to the compulsory participation tendency. As a politicized way of life in one hand, the citizen consumption is probably, and maybe more than others ways of political expression, marked by a social distinction logic. As a result of a subjective political qualification in an other hand, the recognized forms of citizen consumption value the conserns and aimings of a particular social groups, hiding those of others social groups. The issue of the democratic participation of underprivileged population at these mechanisms is maybe less contained in the nature or the organisation of these practices than in their defining criteria and values.
 
Néron Adeline, CAK-IFRIS (EHESS), « End-of-life by the Day. Microsociology of a citizen-consultation »
This work relates to the consultation led in France in autumn 2012 by the Presidential mission of reflection on the end of life. Such appointments aimed at a collection of impressions and opinions from French citizens about social limits in the scientific and medical possibilities of maintaining or not alive. The study has been about their implementation and the characteristics and effects of their modus operandi. The micro-sociological level analysis of interactions between the participants during these days of consultation questions the knowledge requested, credited and accentuated within this participatory dynamic. We shall so look at registers, sequencings and movements of appropriations and contributions during the exchanges, to the extent of what this process invites re-registration of the public as individuals in the political entity, here regarding ethics of life and health sciences.
 

Workshop 4 « Implementation territories of environmental policies »

Chairman : Rémi Lefebvre (CERAPS)
discussants : Valérie Deldrève (ADBX, IRSTÉA) et Simon Charbonneau (MCF honoraire, Bordeaux I)
 
Baggioni Vincent, LAMES (Aix-Marseille), « Social and cognitive frames of actors territorialisation: provisions to avoid conflicts? The example of solar farms in the PACA region »
The development of solar farms in the PACA region in the South of France gives rise to contrasting reactions amongst local actors from indifference to support or opposition. This article intends to explain how the differences in the reactions of the local communities. To do so, it compares two projects taking place in a very similar environments, but that have led to different outcomes. It presents what takes place before the project goes into public enquiry (enquête publique) and the various informal adjustments that the operator, the municipal mayor and his team put in place. These adjustments can be conceptualized as the result of a “social investigation” exercise that the project initiators lead to prevent the project to emerge as a public problem.
 
Caron Isabelle, Université d’Ottawa, « Public participation and public action: The influence of public servants on the formulation of major public transportation projects »
Associated with the concepts of sustainable development, public transportation has been the subject of numerous governmental projects, which often lead to public consultations. The nature of public transportation’s issues has contributed towards the creation of several participatory processes, since decision-making in this domain is based on social and political choices that directly affect citizens. Furthermore, public policy formulation includes various actors whose role has been the subject of several studies. However, few studies address the issue of civil servants’ influence in the policy formulation process. Yet, they organize public consultations, analyse their results and make recommendations to elected officials. Civil servants, through their advising role, are well positioned to influence public policy development. The thesis project focuses on civil servants’ influence on major public transportation project at the formulation phase within the scope of public consultation (before, during, and after these consultations). It seeks, first, to measure civil servants’ influence on public policy in the public transportation domain and, second, to understand the real impacts of public consultation on public transportation projects’ formulation.
 
Galateau Estelle-Fleur, CERLIS (Paris 5), « L’Workshop Climat, dispositif de démocratie participative mis en place dans le cadre du développement durable : une nouvelle forme de d’impulsion citoyenne ? »
 
Gansinat Juliette, “Are the Regional Nature Parks privileged players for the implementation of public participation through territorial landscape policies? Examples of the ‘landscape workshop’ (RNP Livradois-Forez) and the ‘trestles of landscapes’ (RNP Causses du Quercy”
The legal framework of landscape public policies translates a desire to be open to territories and their developers, notably by asserting that public participation is necessary. This new approach is not possible without a conceptual renewal of the object landscape. Through this communication, we will focus on the concurrency of both conceptual and legal movement attributed to landscape. Furthermore, we will question the position of Regional Nature Parks (RNP) as privileged players for the territorialisation of landscape policies and for accompanying the new democratic practices it entails. To achieve this, we will analyse participatory mechanisms organised as part of the landscape policy of two parks: the “landscape workshop” by the RNP Livradois-Forez (Puy-de-Dôme, Haute-Loire, Loire), and the “trestles of landscapes” by the RNP Causses du Quercy (Lot). Through these examples, we will show that parks hold a dual legitimacy (when it comes to the State and local partners) as players of territorial policies. However, in order to consolidate this status within the framework of public policies that lean more and more towards public participation, it appears necessary for the parks to question their skills in terms of mediation and consultation rather than the tools at their disposal.
 

13h15 – 14h15 : Lunch

Friday november 22, 14h15 – 15h45: 3 Parallel Workshops

Workshop 5 « Thinking participation in Latin America»

Chairman : Denis Salles (ADBX, Irstéa)
discussants : Martine Revel (CERAPS) et Héloïse Nez (Université François Rabelais, Tours)
 
Alfredo Ramos Pérez, Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), « The National Conferences on Public Policy in Brazil. The step up in scale of Participatory Democracy »
The National Conferences on Public Policy are a recently developed Participatory Institution in Brazil. These processes, even locally based, after a scaling up process, are directed to the national level. The analysis of these institutions, allows us to deal with a key problem within participatory theory: the relationship between participation and scale. This text points out certain lines of this relationship, posing three theoretical turns that allows us to face this question: institutional, systemic and epistemic. Focusing on the latter, the Conferences of Policies for Women and Social Control and Transparency, will be presented.
 
Galindo Liliana, Pacte (IEP Grenoble), « The 'Politics' of the Apolitical Youth and the Transformations of the Political Practices of the Youth in Latin America: The Cases of Colombia and Brazil »
In this paper we propose a specific approach oriented to examine the impacts on democracy and participation through a problematization of the "symbiosis" youth – politics in Latin America. The term "symbiosis" instead of "relationship" is proposed in order to critique the notion of creating a duality and opposition between youth and politics, something which does not take into account either the political character of the social production of the youth, nor the youth participation in the production of a particular political order.
This research is part of a PhD research project aiming to analyse the transformations of political practices of the youth in Latin America through the use of Internet (cases study: Colombia and Brazil). Two specific empirical cases concern us: the MANE (Mesa Amplia Nacional Estudiantil) in Colombia, which deployed an unprecedented student movement in the last 40 years of national history, and Acampa Sampa Ocupa Sampa from the Occupy movement in Sao Paulo, born of the global call to “occupy” different cities in October 2011. This paper shows how the emergence of new forms of communication in the Latin American context involves a political reconfiguration.
 
Sa Vilas Boas Marie-Hélène, IEP Aix-en-Provence, « Brazilian participatory analysis in its production context : scientifical traditions and interpretative limit »
According to Pierre Bourdieu, "Many misunderstandings in international communication are a result of the fact that texts do not bring their context with them". Our paper aims at interpreting Brazilian participatory democracy analysis in its context of scientific and political production. Such a perspective shows two limits. The first one is the simplified definition of political institutions adopted by the researchers. Considered as inevitably defaulting, political institutions are not taken in consideration seriously in the analysis. The consequence is a concentration on social movement activism, which does not explain entirely the emergence and the internal dynamics of participatory institutions.
 

Workshop 6 « The conditions of sectoral emergence of participation »

Chairwoman : Alice Mazeaud (Université de La Rochelle)
discussants : Marion Carrel (CeRIES, Lille 3) et Andy Smith (Centre Émile Durkheim, IEP Bordeaux)
 
Colas Degenne Isabelle, CERLIS, chargée de cours à Paris 5-Descartes, « Quelle place pour les syndicats d’enseignants dans les grandes consultations nationales sur l’École en France (1973-2003) ? »
 
Demoulin Jeanne, Mosaïques-LAVUE (Paris-Ouest), « Participatory settings as indicators of change. The conditions of emergence of tenants’ participation in social housing organizations »
This article intends to consider participatory settings as indicators of change of the neoliberal turn that characterizes the European socio-political context from the late 1970s. A specific sector is analysed in this perspective: the social housing organizations, executing agencies of the French public housing policy. We examine how participatory settings support the changes occurring in the managers’ frame of reference. It is shown that these settings are one of the instruments for the conversion of social housing organizations into service companies that intend to satisfy their customers.
 
Renaud Yann, Mosaïques-LAVUE (Paris-Ouest), « La montée de l’impératif participatif dans l’urbanisme parisien »
 

Workshop 7 « Norms of deliberation »

Chairman : Emmanuel Picavet (Phico, Paris I)
discussants : Agnès Villechaise (Centre Émile Durkheim, Bordeaux 2) et Rémi Barbier (Gestion territoriale de l'eau et de l'environnement, ENGEES)
 
Gissinger Célia, Laboratoire Culture et société en Europe (Université de Strasbourg), « The cultural et politics effects of the experience of juries Inside criminal justice: to democratic conversion »
Our thesis wishes to analyze the experience of juries inside criminal justice. From various interviews made with former jurors and Presidents of criminal justice as well as observations of real court sessions, we would like to show that the practice of judgement has a disturbing effect on the jurors’ convictions. The shift occurring inside the jurors’ mind is analysed through the concept of democratic conversion. This analogy will enable us to explain the process taking place inside each juror all along their experience. The building of their absolute conviction, analysed as a true ability to judge, is at the core of the process of democratic conversion. The experience of judgement tends to be as crucial for the jurors we’ve met as for the democracy itself and take sense for participative democracy.
 
Jolivet Anne, Centre Max Weber (Lyon 2) et Istituto di filosofia e sociologia del diritto (Università degli Studi di Milano), « La participation des citoyens à la fonction de juger en France et en Italie : une étude socio-anthropologique du jury populaire en cour d’assises »
This contribution is part of the theme of research which is interested in the political and cultural effects of the public participation in decision-makings. Within the framework of my doctoral research, I realized a comparison of the French and Italian criminal jury in criminal court. I followed a socio-anthropological, interdisciplinary and comparative approach by mobilizing a comprehensive sociology which attempts to take in account the dynamic of the social through the study of the margins of action of the social actors.
After the presentation of the contextual and juridical ground useful for understanding the comparison between the French and Italian lay participation, I would return on the relevance of the links between lay participation and democracy. Regarding the politic effects, it is a question of showing the influence of lay participation under the civic commitment and on the redefining of the links of the citizens toward the law and the judicial institution. Regarding the cultural effects, the aim is to show how the lay participation to criminal justice has an impact on the people’s common sens, creating a culture of discussion and exchange, and how it converts the exercise of the citizenship for the participants.
 
Le MazierJulie, CRPS-CESSP (Paris 1), « La fabrique des normes en vigueur dans les assemblées générales étudiantes (2006-2010) : genèses et conflits »
 

Friday november 22 afternoon

 

16h – 17h30 : 2 Parallel Workshops

Workshop 8 « Political parties and participatory democracy»

Chairwoman : Marion Paoletti(Centre Émile Durkheim, Bordeaux IV)
discussants : Pierre Sadran (Centre Émile Durkheim, IEP Bordeaux) et Guillaume Gourgues (Pacte et Université de Franche-Comté)
 
Bocquet Jonathan, Triangle (Lyon 2), « Strategies of representative democracy actors face to participatory processes  »
Based on the observation of tools and formats of participatory democracy within the cities of the Grand Lyon between 2010 and 2013, this paper proposes to consider the issues and the uses of  the ermerging public policies of participation. By taking into account diverse participation formats, and by crossing interviews and ethnographic work,  it discusses the articulation of justification within political and partisans cultures. The participatory settings are framed by the intern logics of the party system and the various designs of citizenships and democracy of the parties. It appears there's a quarrel of legitimacy between the actors of representative democracy and participatory democracy. The study of actors’ strategies and aims highlights the power struglles into the public action process.
 
Sedda Paola, GERIICO (Lille 3), « Internet practices and protestation in Italy: the paradox of participation »
This work deals with the role that information practices play in the development of new citizens participation forms. By supporting a synergy between the domain of “information behaviour” and the social movements studies, we analysed a digital corpus concerning two Italian protester groups : the Telestreet network and the 5 Stars Movement. Disenchanted with politics and going through a process of social class identity loss, the new movements seem to progressively break away from the traditional political organisations in order to occupy new media spaces and to experiment with new bottom-up participation modes. In this way, in coincidence with a strong political crisis and with the permanence of serious anomalies in the national media system, new information practices, related to production, use and sharing of political information, became an effective mean to politicise the citizen sphere.
However, the research also showed that the ethics of public participation, forging most of  contemporary social movements, is constantly diminished by the influence of merchant  logics as well as the ambivalent relationship that these new groups maintain with the institutional field.
 
Theviot Anaïs, Centre Durkheim (IEP Bordeaux), « Ignorer les potentialités du Web 2.0 : une campagne 1.5 ? Analyse comparative des stratégies (participatives) en ligne du PS et de l’UMP pendant la campagne présidentielle de 2012 »
Over the decades of the Internet’s development and popularization, the academic literature on party politics underline that interactivity between voters and candidates does not exist. The teams of digital campaigns would not exploit the potentialities of Web 2.0. However, the campaign for the French presidential election of 2012 was marked by an intense use of the social networks, the dedicated digital tools - in essence - in the exchange. Did this integration of participative tools in this campaign favor contacts between voters and candidates?
Our paper explores, in a comparative approach, the strategies of the digital teams of the Socialist Party and the Union for a Popular Movement, on the social networks created or managed by these parties. We shall see that the parties did not become, in period of campaign, more interactive with the massive arrival of the social networks; but propose an illusion of participation through the online mobilization, supposed dedicated a "new participative era".
 

Workshop 9 « Public participation in social mobilization strategies»

Chairman : Laurent Mermet (AgroParisTech)
Discussants : Ilaria Casillo (LCP et GIS D&P) et Héloïse Nez (Université François Rabelais, Tours)
 
Ly-Fall Fatimata, GSPR (EHESS) et CEDEM, « Participatory Democracy in Senegal. 'The New opposing force in Senegal': When Hip Hop changes the way we view civic participation »
The proliferation of collective mobilization’ forms and the institutionalization of participatory democracy by state’ authorities has transformed the relationships between rulers and citizens. Indeed, that has remodeled public stakeholders’ interactions on both strategic and argumentative levels. New figures appear on public arenas. Senegal, like many countries is experiencing this phenomenon. A historical and descriptive analysis of civic participation helps to better understand how new participatory dynamics arise. A focus on a subversive Hip Hop movement called “Y’en a marre ”created in January 2011 by a group of young rappers and journalists, contributes to illustrate how such participatory experiencies are caught by civic organizations and what are their reel effects on public decision making and democracy in this country.
 
Odin Pierre, CERI (IEP Paris), « ‘Negotiating to reinforce the struggle’ : the definition of public problems and mobilization strategies in Guadeloupe (2009) »
This article aims at providing a cross-cutting perspective about tensions between mobilization and public participation, in order to discuss the framework conditions of public problems definition during a situation of generalized social conflict – as it was the case in Guadeloupe in 2009. By questioning the effects of coalition work and the stakes of organizational competition in the strategic self-empowerment of the protestors, we want to explain how indigenous activist categories may transform themselves into public problems. We will also question the conditions of critical resources diffusion and circulation through a conflict-sensitive approach of the negotiation process.
 
Sakho Jimbira Mohamed, Centre de recherche sur les médiations (Crem-Université de Lorraine), « Political commitment in Muslim religious discourse on Facebook: a ​​desire for democracy?»
Social networks sites in general, and Facebook in particular, offer multiple features through which users publish contents (pictures, videos, articles, etc..), tell of events, and band together into micro-communities around specific interests. Among them, we note the presence of users and of collective French Muslim militants having, political and religious discourses. What meaning to give to these different uses, and what do they refer to? One of the possible answers, could lie in a desire to find spaces for dialogue allowing them to hold speeches they could not convey in the traditional public space and in the media, or at least very difficult.
 

17h45 – 19h15 : 2 Parallel Workshops

Workshop 10 « The Open Data: transparency or participation?»

Chairwoman : Laurence Monnoyer-Smith(Costech et CNDP)
discussants : Josquin Debaz (GSPR, EHESS) et Alice Mazeaud (Université de La Rochelle)
 
Barres Yohan, Costech (UT Compiègne), « Quand le mouvement open data questionne les formes et la légitimité de l’État. Archéologie des données comme instrument de gouvernement »
 
Goëta Samuel, département SES, Télécom ParisTech, « Provoke the interest of developers: participation of the public to open data reuse contests »
This article studies mobile app and web services contests reusing open data. Placed from the point of view of the institution, the study of these calls to participation aims at understanding the place of the public in open data policies and the changes they attempt to provoke in administrations. It results from the study of discourse in a corpus of official documents and interviews that open data contests split the public between technically competent developers and the general public consuming services. By provoking participation of self-interested developers, it seems, looking at studied institutions, that contests justify the open data policies but do not achieve to mobilise all the actors of open data in the long term.
 
Mancosu Giorgio, Centre de Droit Public Comparé (Paris 2) et Università degli Studi di Cagliari, « From open government data to open public decision-making ? A comparative legal analysis Italy-France »
Whether it is to boost « the opening of public government » or to support its « increased exposure », democratic virtues of Open Government Data raise hopes but also many questions. On the political side, the new paradigm inspires multilateral cooperation and affect the reform strategies of a growing number of countries. The legal framework evolves in the intersection between hard law and soft law , between the interests for regulation and the need to pedagogy. The aim of the study is to highlight the juridical outlines (and paths) of the Open Government Data both in Italy and in France and to consider the impact of citizens’ participation on its implementation as well as on its perpetuation. Although the context is not yet stabilized, the differences and similarities between the two countries show trends (and obstacles) that may mark the future of the phenomenon and its ability to influence the relationship between citizens and the government, both in terms of knowledge and of public decision-making.
 

Workshop 11 « Participation, memory and artistic practices»

Chairman : Loïc Blondiaux (CESSP, Université Paris I)
Discussants : Françoise Liot (Université Bordeaux IV) et Catherine Neveu (IIAC-TRAM)
 
Bouhaddou Marie-Kenza, CRH-LAVUE (Paris-Ouest), « New artistic projects in social housing districts: potentials and institutionnalization of the informal and contributive participation »
This paper will try to show the limits of traditional participatory plans, seen from the angle of the inhabitants’ involvement and their representative character, as part of artistic projects supported in social housings context. My analysis is based on the observations of my thesis work: Social housing organisations and new artistic projects. It describes the relationships between social housings organisations in one hand and artistic projects makers on the other hand. Through a project called Take roots !: an urban plants nursery co constructed with the inhabitants of a district concerned by urban renewal. I will explain how this project allows people to create informal spaces of co-construction, apart from the traditional participatory plans. Even if these informal spaces are struck between institutionalization and ideological hijacking, people take a part in the fabrication of the artistical, political, environmental and social part of the project.
 
Chavanon Morane, Triangle (Lyon 2), « Participatory narrative of local immigration history: the challenge of a shared memory, between urban projects and social movements »
Since the 2000s, the notion of memory has become a public matter. It has been associated with an injunction to recognize the history of certain social groups considered as excluded from the historic national narrative, like immigrants.
Gradually, memory has been included in urban policies and public projects, with a particular attention to the figure of the resident. In our research on two postindustrial cities in the region of Rhône-Alpes -Villeurbanne and Saint-Etienne- we are interested in the strategies of the actors and the different political uses behind the narrative of the local past.
Between collective identity making and the will to develop the territory, the recognition of the contribution of immigrants to the urban memory has been integrated to local policies, and more particularly to politics of participatory democracy. Links have been created between institutional participation and social movements on the issues of collective heritage and immigration.
 
Montero Sarah, ADES (Bordeaux 3), « Pragmatique de l'engagement citoyen : mobilisation et concertation autour de la création et de la gestion d’un équipement culturel à Bordeaux »
A collective action to reopen and manage a cultural facility highlights citizens' willingness to address complex cultural and urban issues. The analysis shows that citizens must learn to circumvent the rules of public consultation in order to bear some weight in decision-making, and underlines the role of civil society in structuring and politicizing the group. The association also appears to be the right interface between representation and participation.
 

Friday november 22 19h30 : Cocktail in the University Atrium

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Saturday november 23, 8h30 – 11h : 2 Parallel Workshops

Workshop 12 « Involve the public: the differential appropriation of the institutional supply »

Chairman : Gérard Monédiaire (CRIDEAU, Limoges)
discussants : Marion Paoletti(Centre Émile Durkheim, Bordeaux IV) etPatrice Duran (ISP, ENS Cachan)
 
Bataille Jean-Marie, ADES (Bordeaux 3), « Production du territoire des jeunes, l'exemple de la ville de Paris »
The article focuses on participation and public consultation of young people as it differs from that of adults. A presentation of three situations is utilized to understand what is the presence of young people in public policy. The choice is given to sequences in which the transformation of the city affects urbanity : the renovation of the Bassin de la Villette (Paris XIXe arrondissement) and its gentrification, Eco-quartier of Clichy-Batignolles (Paris). These moments are an opportunity to take on the spot on how to proceed with the youth. Between bursts, crystallization and consultation, young people, as a category, always appear next. The reasons may be looking into how to design devices and what they say about intentions to take into account the views of young people. In other words, this may be the forms of city construction, variable over time, which generate singular devices in which a view of youth is worn ? Our understanding of youth would then read in how to involve the construction of the city.
 
Galhardo Jacques, CITERES-CoST (Université Tours), « The participatory mechanisms in Lisbon: a municipal governance between plasticity and pragmatism »
Since the 1980s, the municipality of Lisbon attempts to control the processes that transform Lisbon's urban space. Faced to the diversity of the needs and given the urgency it first tried to adapt the municipal technical structures, then to change the tools. The results were limited when this was not just a failure (due to a high level of resistance against public policy, budget imbalances, huge urban exodus). Since the1990s, the municipality changed its public action characterized by a planning and functionalism framework for a relatively complex and various participatory mechanisms framework. These participatory mechanisms enter gradually into the municipal standards as well as in the political agenda of the capital. Our goal is to demonstrate that these mechanisms meet a pragmatic and plastic logic which aims to take into account all the constraints of the public policy ie : spatial mobility, territory efficiency, international standards, local aspirations ... We will rely on three examples: the mechanism of the participatory budget at the level of the city, a local initiative lead by a neighborhood association and the development process of the Local municipal Housing.
 
Petit Guillaume, CESSP-CRPS (Paris 1), « Patterns of participation in local democracy: in the ordinary and out of the ordinary course of commitment »
What does mean and imply an offer of public participation in a town of 17,000 inhabitants? Seeing that this institutional offer is differently appropriated by the participants, we question how such offer can be convincing, under what conditions and to what point? Analysis of the multiple individuals’ trajectories and positioning among the participatory devices’ public helps to understand how what is said to be a political innovation is also anchored in an ordinary state of local involvement. Next step would be to outline the stated conditions for a participatory movement which would not be only prefigured in preceding networks. This research in progress is part of a larger concern about hypothetical social claims for participation, and how such claims are constructed and taken in account by participatory devices. Better understanding of how a granted participatory opportunity is or is not grasped by some citizens permits to gain access to a contextual range of answers to the question of how people wish, or are able to wish, participate in the democratic process?
 
Saihi Mouna, CERAL (Paris XIII), « Participatory practices between institutionalization and closing the local game »
Punctuated by a double movement of development and democratization, Morocco is crossed by a dynamic institutionalization of the issue of participatory democracy. At the local level, the public participation is this new instrument which renews the traditional modes of the municipality and reexamines its opening on the social environment. This new modality of the public action, is going to cause the meeting between categories of heterogeneous actors, to impulse their interaction and to confront them with the democratic exercise. How the participatory practices are building? And what functions do they fill within the public space?
 

Workshop 13 « The participation devices and their public»

Chairwoman : Marion Carrel (CeRIES, Lille 3)
discussants : Francis Chateauraynaud(GSPR-EHESS) et Corinne Larrue (CITERES et Paris-Est)
 
Alexis Lucie et Nancy Ottaviano, CARISM (Institut Français de Presse, Paris II) et LAA-LAVUE (ENSA La Villette), « L’ePétition de la Mairie de Paris. Étude d’un dispositif numérique entre démocratie représentative et démocratie participative »
Since 2009, the City Council of Paris enables its citizens to alert the Conseil Municipal through the use of digital petitions. To this day no e-petition met the required conditions in order to be discussed by the institution. Despite the multiplicity of means to practice participatory democracy at various decisional scales, the implication of citizens in governing processes is both desired and feared. Supported by an inquiry ordered by the Mission Démocratie Locale of the City Council of Paris in 2013 within the framework of the experimental program of political arts by Sciences-Po Paris (Speap), we did question the use of digital means applied to civilian mobilization processes. Organized in three parts this article follows an experimental methodology. By analysing political discourse at first, the article gives a reading of the Charte de la Démocratie Participative published by the City Council which reveals the ambiguous links between participatory and representative conceptions of democracy for the institution. Using an semiotic tools in a second part, the article focuses on the user experience proposed by the e-petition institutional platform. At last, the article gives few results of two workshops entitled “Internet, Politics and the People” for which we designed a serious game. This experimental set of cards is showed here as a mediation tool to make readable and comparable various civilian mobilisation processes. From the individual to the greater public how do the public built and structured itself into groups of concerned willing to have impact political representatives about objects of controversies?
 
Huguet François, département SES, Telecom ParisTech, « For an ethnography of the Community Wireless MESH networks: Bottom-up innovation(s) for urban resilience ? (Digital) practices and means to transform the City of Detroit »
This talk examines the issues and the sociopolitical aspects of what we call “digital bottom-up practices” which aim to create new forms of solidarities while strengthening communities across the crisis-city of Detroit (we are focusing on the deployments of the Community Wireless MESH networks using the commotion software in this city). Based on a three months fieldwork and observation within groups implementing these networks (2013, May - July), this work try to show how a networking principle, in this case, the decentralized architecture and the use of CWNs, is able to suggest a new type of democracy, a new type of relation to the public services infrastructure, to the media, to community organizing, to the fact of communication and to engagement and participation.
Today, after fundamental and empirical work both in Sciences and Technology Studies and also in Humanities and Social Sciences, it seems that we are witnessing a particular movement within the discourse on policy-making technical objects. Consequently, this movement illustrates the transition of these communication infrastructures from a "political" speech implied [Winner, 1986] into something "assumed" and claimed. And this movement is embodied in Detroit, specifically in its grass-roots processing practices based on the (distributed) digital justice principles which illustrate the "fact to live the web" differently as well as the growing of a decentralized, bottom-up economy which is one of the vectors of the empowerment of users-citizens and necessary to citizen emancipation.
 
Mabi Clément, Costech (UT Compiègne), « May we discuss about everything and with everyone? Study of the CNDP debates and their public »
This paper aim to focus on the study of public debates organized by the French Commission for Public Debate (CNDP) and the activation of its publics. If its methodology seems to work to discuss some « projects », we can see that the organization is more difficult for some technoscientifc objects like nuclear issues or nanotechnologies. Are those experiences a major concern for the model of public debate promoted by the CNDP? Can we say that some objects are too conflicting for being discussed in those debates?
To answer to those questions, we have realized an analyse of the arrangement promoted by the CNDP to deal with different objects in order to understand how the objects put to the test procedures. We are working on the idea that there is a « methodological unthought » which is limiting the axiological opening of the arrangements, unlike the matter of concern of some publics who aim to expand the debate. In other words there would be a gap between public expectations and the resources offered by the CNDP to organize the discussion. This unthough is particularly visible about the implementation of online tools in the CNDP arrangements. We would like to prove that the challenge to build on their characteristics is reflecting the difficulty of the CNDP to adapt to public.
 
Ottaviano Nancy, LAA-LAVUE (ENSA La Villette), « Mythes et réalités de l’urbanisme collaboratif. Regard ethnographique sur une expérimentation numérique participative »
Unlimited Cities is a tool of collaborative urbanism currently under development by UFO, a French trans-disciplinary start-up. This trend aims at implying the so-called civilian society into the decision-making process that enables urban developments. Unlimited Cities is an interactive device designed for iPads in order to empower inhabitants and renew their ways of participating. It enables its users to modify photographic pictures of their neighbourhood by choosing among five levels of intensity for six different criteria. By doing so, users can visualize a wide range of urban scenarios and choose their favourite one. Pictures, comments and other information are then being transformed into datas with a back and forth motion between qualitative and quantitative datas : a key issue in developing digital devices implying a large amount of individuals. This protocol addresses the scale of the neighbourhood La Pompignane where two public workshops have been organized. This can be seen as a coherent part of the political discourse carrying participatory democracy for public representatives. In the meanwhile urban developments are at stake within Montpellier as a metropolis. As an interactive device addressing both the developments of the city and digital abilities, Unlimited Cities questions the boundaries of technical services, embodied as groups of public servants, their competencies and ways of making. This “inquiry of public imagination” is a disruptive innovation that can paradoxically be integrated into current practices. Theses are being shaped by procedures: these non-human actors do define the frameworks and conditions of interactions between the various actors concerned by the project. A specific procedure, called a “competitive dialog”, is currently under development at Montpellier. How do the different people involved do consider the narratives produced by UFO and the inhabitants of the neighbourhood? This analysis, based on an ethnographic research, will attempt to give an insight on the performativity of civilian participation through the use of innovative digital devices.
 
Vergne Antoine, CEVIPOF et Missions Publiques, « Réussir le “changement d’échelle” dans la démocratie participative : leçons de trois expériences »
The wish to scale up processes of participatory democracy is a growing concern both in research and practice which raises unresolved questions: First of all, concerning the tension between participation and deliberation: do scaled up processes allow to have simultaneously a quantitative significant and a socially representative number of participants? Secondly, concerning the territory: Do scaled up processes overcome the limits inherent to physical meetings, allow addressing global issues that involve various scales of territory and permit to design processes that are freed from traditional territorial divisions of public policy? Thirdly, concerning the engineering of participation: is it possible to have a highly qualitative process at a high scale? Finally, concerning the impact of participatory democracy : do large-scale processes have a stronger impact on policy and politics, and on participants?
In this paper, I wish to explore possible answers to theses questions. I will start by defining the concept of scaling up, then analyse six experiments I was part of as a practitioner of participatory democracy. I will eventually offer a modelling of upscaling and propose some conditions for success if such a scaling up is wished.